Public Release: 

Heatwaves in early childhood and later life outcomes

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

A study of more than 12 million individuals from the United States who were born between 1969 and 1977 finds that exposure to extreme heat in utero and in the first year of life was associated with a reduction in adult earnings at age 30, with the observed effects being greatest for gestational days with mean temperatures above 32 °C; over the study period, increased access to air conditioning appeared to mitigate the observed relationship between temperature exposure in early childhood and later-life outcomes.

Article #17-02436: "Relationship between season of birth, temperature exposure, and later life wellbeing," by Adam Isen, Maya Rossin-Slater, and Reed Walker.

MEDIA CONTACT: Reed Walker, University of California, Berkeley, CA; tel: 510-965-3298; e-mail: <>; Maya Rossin-Slater, Stanford University; email: <>


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