In this study, women whose daily consumption of milk during pregnancy was 1 cup (250 ml) or less consumed less protein and vitamin D and gave birth to smaller babies than mothers who drank more milk. Milk and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy were found to be each associated with infant birth weights, independently of other risk factors.
In a related commentary, Hollis and Wagner note that this study makes a very intriguing and important observation in relation to vitamin D. They believe that vitamin D may not only affect fetal skeletal formation, but also neurodevelopment, immune function and chronic disease susceptibility later in life.
p.1273 Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight
-- C.A. Mannion et al
1287 Nutritional vitamin D status during pregnancy: reasons for concern
-- B.W. Hollis, C.L. Wagner