(A) Schematic of the CSS paradigm, where total sleep deprivation (SD, red bars) occurred at the onset of the first three lights-on (light blue) periods of the week (L1, L2 and L3) for 8 consecutive hours. Mice were returned to home cages for the last 4 hrs of the L1, L2 and L3 periods and the ensuing lights off (dark blue bars, D1, D2 and D3) periods. Mice were left undisturbed in home cages for days 4-7 each week. The pattern was repeated weekly for 4 consecutive weeks. (B) Following CSS and Rest control conditions, mice recovered 3 mos before behavioral tests at ages 5 and 7 mos and then an additional 2-3 mos before undergoing the specified protein assays at ages 9-10 months.