The group performed fecal microbiome transplant (FMT) studies from responding patients on PD-1 blockade (R) or from non-responding patients (NR). In these studies, mice receiving FMT from R had enhanced systemic and anti-tumor immunity, with more immune cells in the tumor and in the gut of the transplanted animals. Conversely, mice receiving FMT from NR had poor anti-tumor immunity and a paucity of immune cells in the gut. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the 2 November 2017, online issue of Science, published by AAAS. The paper, by V. Gopalakrishnan at University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, and colleagues was titled, "Gut microbiome impacts response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients."
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