This is a schematic diagram illustrating how hepatocytes or liver cells clear excess bile from blocked ducts. (A) Bile ducts are blocked in diseases such as biliary atresia. (B) Bile builds up behind the blockage, putting pressure on the surrounding cells that make up the walls of the duct. (C) If the pressure increases, the actin cortex, which lies inside the cell, may rupture. Once the actin filament network is fragmented, the bile will push the cell membrane into the cell, through the disrupted actin network. (D) If the actin network cannot be repaired, then the membrane will continue to be pushed inside until it breaks off into bubble-like vesicles. These vesicles carry the bile through the cell and away from the blockage.