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Showing releases 1-25 out of 247.

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Public Release: 17-Nov-2017
Science Advances
Heavy nitrogen molecules reveal planetary-scale tug-of-war
Researchers from Rice University, UCLA, Michigan State and the University of New Mexico have discovered a planetary-scale tug-of-war between life, deep Earth and the upper atmosphere that is expressed in atmospheric nitrogen. The research appears this week in Science Advances.
National Science Foundation, Deep Carbon Observatory, US Department of Energy

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 17-Nov-2017
Science Advances
Water world
Following the path of radicals and being able to identify many damaged residues because of incredibly accurate, expeditious and sensitive mass spectrometry, three scientists studied the great granddaddy of all photosynthetic organisms -- a strain of cyanobacteria -- to develop the first experimental map of that organism's water world.
US Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Chuck Finder
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 16-Nov-2017
Nearby pulsars shed light on the antimatter puzzle
There are too many high-energy positrons in the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. These positrons (particles that are antimatter equivalents of electrons) could be being produced by pulsars in our vicinity. The most recent measurements from the HAWC Observatory in Mexico have practically excluded this possibility, strengthening the competing and much more exotic hypothesis concerning the origin of the excess positrons.
National Science Foundation, DOE/High Energy Physics, DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory, CONACYT México, Laboratorio Nacional HAWC de rayos gamma México, L'Oreal FWIS 2014, Red HAWC México, DGAPA-UNAM México, VIEP-BUAP México, PIFI 2012, 2013 México

Contact: Dr. Francisco Salesa Greus
The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences

Public Release: 16-Nov-2017
Plant Cell
Secrets of succulents' water-wise ways revealed
Plant scientists at the University of Liverpool have revealed new insights into the mechanisms that allow certain plants to conserve water and tolerate drought. The research, which is published in The Plant Cell, could be used to help produce new crops that can thrive in previously inhospitable, hot and dry regions across the world.
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, US Department of Energy

Contact: Nicola Frost
University of Liverpool

Public Release: 16-Nov-2017
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Additive manufacturing and sustainability: The environmental implications of 3-D printing
In a new special issue, Yale's Journal of Industrial Ecology presents the cutting-edge research on this emerging field, providing important insights into its environmental, energy, and health impacts.
DOE/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Lounsbery Foundation, General Electric

Contact: Kevin Dennehy
Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Public Release: 16-Nov-2017
High-altitude observatory sheds light on origin of excess anti-matter
Researchers working with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory have made the first detailed measurements of two pulsars suspected as the source of a mysterious positron accumulation near Earth. Despite being the right age and the right distance from Earth, the pulsars lie within an extended murky cloud that prevents most positrons from escaping. The results suggest there must be an alternate explanation for the positron excess -- perhaps one involving dark matter.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología of Mexico

Contact: Matthew Wright
University of Maryland

Public Release: 16-Nov-2017
On the origins of star stuff: HAWC collaboration sheds light on origin of anti-matter
Michigan Tech team and others use a high-altitude observatory in Mexico to better understand where gamma rays come from.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología

Contact: Kelley Christensen
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 14-Nov-2017
Science Advances
Researchers take next step toward fusion energy
Fusion is the process that powers the sun, harnessing it on Earth would provide unlimited clean energy. Researchers say that constructing a fusion power plant has proven to be a daunting task because there have been no materials that could survive the grueling conditions found in the core of a fusion reactor. Now, researchers at Texas A&M University have discovered a way to make materials that may be suitable for use in future fusion reactors.
DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

Contact: Aubrey Bloom
Texas A&M University

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
Supercomputing speeds up deep learning training
Researchers from UC Berkeley, UC Davis and TACC used Stampede2 to complete a 100-epoch ImageNet deep neural network training in 11 minutes -- the fastest time recorded to date. Using 1600 Skylake processors they also bested Facebook's prior results by finishing a 90-epoch ImageNet training with ResNet-50 in 32 minutes. Given TACC's large user base and huge capacity, this capability will have a major impact across all fields of science.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

Contact: Aaron Dubrow
University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center

Public Release: 13-Nov-2017
UK researchers produce high grade rare earth concentrate from coal source
University of Kentucky researchers have produced nearly pure rare earth concentrates from Kentucky coal sources using a novel rare earth recovery process.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Whitney Harder
University of Kentucky

Public Release: 8-Nov-2017
Lab on a Chip
Sensors applied to plant leaves warn of water shortage
MIT engineers have created sensors that can be printed onto plant leaves and reveal when the plants are experiencing a water shortage, which could give farmers an early warning when their crops are in danger.
US Department of Energy, Swiss National Science Foundation, Singapore's Agency for Science, Research, and Technology

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 2-Nov-2017
Georgia State physicist gets $400,000 grant to study solar energy conversion
Dr. Gary Hastings, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Georgia State University, has received a two-year, $400,000 federal grant to study solar energy conversion in photosynthesis.
US Department of Energy

Contact: LaTina Emerson
Georgia State University

Public Release: 2-Nov-2017
Science Advances
WSU researchers document transformation of graphite into hexagonal diamond
A team of WSU researchers has for the first time observed and recorded the creation of hexagonal diamond under shock compression, revealing crucial details about how it is formed. The discovery could help planetary scientists use the presence of hexagonal diamond at meteorite craters to estimate the severity of impacts.
US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, US Department of Energy Office of Science

Contact: Yogendra Gupta
Washington State University

Public Release: 1-Nov-2017
Mapping the microbiome of...everything
In the Earth Microbiome Project, an extensive global team co-led by researchers at University of California San Diego, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory collected more than 27,000 samples from numerous, diverse environments around the globe. They analyzed the unique collections of microbes -- the microbiomes -- living in each sample to generate the first reference database of bacteria colonizing the planet.
John Templeton Foundation, W. M. Keck Foundation, DOE/Argonne National Laboratory, Australian Research Council, Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment, National Science Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 31-Oct-2017
Nature Communications
Future volcanic eruptions could cause more climate disruption
Major volcanic eruptions in the future have the potential to affect global temperatures and precipitation more dramatically than in the past because of climate change, according to a new study led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, NASA

Contact: David Hosansky
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 30-Oct-2017
Two Princeton astrophysicists receive funding to study merging neutron stars
The TEAMS consortium (Towards Exascale Astrophysics of Mergers and Supernovae), including Princeton University's Adam Burrows and David Radice, will investigate how stellar explosions create elements. "Merging neutron stars produce the heaviest elements," Burrows said, "but the oxygen we breathe, the iron in our hemoglobin, the calcium in our bones, the fluorine in our toothpaste -- these sorts of things are unambiguously products of supernova explosions: the death of a massive star."
Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, DOE/Office of Science, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

Contact: Liz Fuller-Wright
Princeton University

Public Release: 25-Oct-2017
Nature Communications
New property found in unusual crystalline materials
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere discover an unexpected property of some nanostructured metals, could lead to new ways of 'tuning' their properties.
Natural Science Foundation of China, ExxonMobil Research, MIT Energy Initiative, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Singapore-MIT Alliance

Contact: Ms. Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 25-Oct-2017
Journal of Applied Physics
Models clarify physics at photocathode surfaces
Advances in materials science have improved the composition of materials used in photocathode production that can operate at visible wavelengths and produce a beam with reduced transverse electron momentum spread; however, the surface roughness of the photocathode continues to limit beam properties. Researchers created computer models to bridge the gap to provide a better picture of the physics at the surface of the photocathode. The results are published in this week's Journal of Applied Physics.
US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science

Contact: Julia Majors
American Institute of Physics

Public Release: 24-Oct-2017
Nature Communications
Electronic entropy enhances water splitting
Northwestern University researchers find that an electron transitioning from state to state increases cerium's entropy, making it ideal for hydrogen production.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Emily Ayshford
Northwestern University

Public Release: 23-Oct-2017
Nature Nanotechnology
Researchers bring optical communication onto silicon chips
Ultrathin films of a semiconductor that emits and detects light can be stacked on top of silicon wafers, researchers report in a study that could help bring optical communication onto silicon chips.
Center for Excitonics, US Department of Energy

Contact: Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 19-Oct-2017
'Y' a protein unicorn might matter in glaucoma
A protein shaped like a 'Y' makes scientists do a double-take and may change the way they think about a protein sometimes implicated in glaucoma. The Y is a centerpiece in myocilin, binding four other components nicknamed propellers together like balloons on strings.
National Institutes of Health, NIH/National Eye Institute, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Science Foundation, DOE/Office of Basic Energy Sciences

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
Researchers from Caltech and the University of Southern California (USC) report the first application of quantum computing to a physics problem.
US Department of Energy, Research Technology, Computational HEP, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, National Science Foundation, and others

Contact: Whitney Clavin
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Navigational view of the brain thanks to powerful X-rays
Imagine Google Earth with only the street view and a far-away satellite view but not much of a map view. Brain imaging, for the most part, has been missing just that, and a lot of research on how the brain computes happens on that map-like level. New imaging tackles this special view of the brain with the highest-energy X-rays in the country that illuminate thick sections of a mouse brain.
US Department of Energy, NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity MICrONS project, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency SIMPLEX

Contact: Ben Brumfield
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 16-Oct-2017
Cool your airfoils
Gas turbines serve a variety of power generation purposes ranging from jet engine propulsion to electricity production. Their impressive energy output also results in high-temperatures capable of causing extreme damage and limiting their lifespan. Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are developing advanced strategies to reduce the adverse effects of extremely high-temperatures on turbines.
US Department of Energy

Contact: Paul Kovach
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 16-Oct-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists log newfound understanding of water's responses to changing temperatures
A team of chemists has uncovered new ways in which frozen water responds to changes in temperature to produce novel formations. Its findings have implications for climate research as well as other processes that involve ice formation -- from food preservation to agriculture.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: James Devitt
New York University

Showing releases 1-25 out of 247.

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