Syracuse University researchers probe deep secrets of trapped inclusions in garnet sand from Papua New Guinea
Curtin University researchers have used ancient crystals from eroded rocks found in stream sediments in Greenland to successfully test the theory that portions of Earth's ancient crust acted as 'seeds' from which later generations of crust grew.
The Yellowstone hotspot is well known for generating supereruptions in the geologic past that are far more explosive than historic examples. The origin and sustained longevity of the hotspot is less understood but is focused on two competing models, where the ascent of hot mantle is derived from either a deep-seated mantle plume or a shallow mantle source.
Geyser eruptions, like volcanic eruptions, are a mystery, so the reactivation of Steamboat Geyser in Yellowstone in 2018 provided an opportunity to explore why geysers turn off and on, and what determines their periodicity. A team led by UC Berkeley researchers found little evidence of magma moving below the geyser, meaning no sign of imminent hydrothermal eruptions, but did discover a relationship between the height of the column and the depth of the water reservoir.
Writing in PNAS, scientists from Cologne university present important new constraints showing that plate tectonics started relatively slow, although the early Earth's interior was much hotter than today.
Megathrust earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis that originate in subduction zones like Cascadia -- Vancouver Island, Canada, to northern California -- are some of the most severe natural disasters in the world. Now a team of geoscientists thinks the key to understanding some of these destructive events may lie in the deep, gradual slow-slip behaviors beneath the subduction zones. This information might help in planning for future earthquakes in the area.
Minerals are the most durable, information-rich objects we can study to understand our planet's origin and evolution. However, the current classification system leaves unanswered questions for planetary scientists, geobiologists, paleontologists and others who strive to understand minerals' historical context. A new evolutionary approach to classifying minerals complements the existing protocols and offers the opportunity to rigorously document Earth's history.
University of Tsukuba researchers constructed a state-of-the-art model based on seismic data from the January 2020 Caribbean earthquake. The model revealed considerable complexity in rupture speed and direction, related to a bend in the fault that triggered several rupture episodes. The analysis revealed previously unrecognized complexity of rupture processes and fault geometry in ocean faults that had been assumed to be simple and linear, with implications for future earthquake modeling and a possible interaction with seafloor evolution.
New research from the University of Sydney proposes a theory that explains not only Australia's volcanic coast, but provides a framework for other incidences of intraplate volcanism in China, the US and the Caribbean.
If a tsunami formed along the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the coast of Oregon, residents might have just 20-30 minutes to get to safety. Scientists have proposed a new forecasting system that could provide seaside towns with critical early warnings.