Scientists from the University of Sheffield have used mathematical modelling to understand why flocks of long-tailed tits segregate themselves into different parts of the landscape.
The mechanisms that make organisms locally fit and those responsible for change are distinct and occur sequentially in evolution.
Researchers showed that parallel evolution driven by adaptations can be detected at the whole-genome level. Lake Baikal is home to hundreds of species of endemic amphipods that evolved from several species in their distant ancestry and embrace a variety of ecological niches from predators to planktonic forms and parasites. Parallels were found even between forms with totally different lifestyles.
Biological sex is typically understood in binary terms: male and female. However, there are many examples of animals that are able to modify sex-typical biological and behavioral features and even change sex. A new study, which appears in the journal Current Biology, identifies a genetic switch in brain cells that can toggle between sex-specific states when necessary, findings that question the idea of sex as a fixed property.
Bioengineers at the University of California San Diego used genetic engineering and laboratory evolution to test the functionality of DNA placed into a new species and study how it can mutate to become functional if given sufficient evolutionary time.
A new study, revisiting fossil specimens from the enormous crocodylian, Deinosuchus, has confirmed that the beast had teeth "the size of bananas", capable to take down even the very largest of dinosaurs.
In a publication in Nature Communications last Friday, NIOZ scientists Nina Dombrowski and Anja Spang and their collaboration partners describe a previously unknown phylum of aquatic Archaea that are likely dependent on partner organisms for growth while potentially being able to conserve some energy by fermentation.
Associate Professor SUETSUGU Kenji (Kobe University Graduate School of Science) presents evidence of the apparently unusual seed dispersal system by crickets and camel crickets in Apostasia nipponica (Apostasioideae), acknowledged as an early-diverging lineage of Orchidaceae. These findings are published on August 11 in the online edition of Evolution Letters.
For years, scientists have attributed animal behavior to the coordinated activities of neuronal cells and its circuits of neurons, known as the neuronal network (NN). However, researchers are pushing the boundaries in understanding animal behavior through the integration of gene regulation.
Researchers from Goethe University have found what is perhaps the oldest enzyme in cellular respiration. They have been able to isolate the extremely fragile 'Rnf' protein complex from the heat-loving bacterium Thermotoga maritima. In fact, the genes that encode for the enzyme were already discovered. However, the researchers have now succeeded for the first time in isolating the enzyme and thus in proving that it really is formed by bacteria and used for energy production.