Facing a climate crisis, we may someday spray sulfur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to form a cloud that cools the Earth, but suddenly stopping the spraying would have a severe global impact on animals and plants, according to the first study on the potential biological impacts of geoengineering, or climate intervention.
An experiment using hundreds of plastic drifters in the Gulf of Mexico shows that rather than simply spread out, as current calculations would predict, many of them clumped together in a tight cluster.
The volume of hydraulic fracturing fluid and the location of well pads control the frequency and occurrence of measurable earthquakes, new Alberta Geological Survey and UAlberta research has found.
Scientists from Brazil, China and Italy have reached a model to map out the phases in which silica (SiO2) transforms into coesite rock, by analyzing how the inelastic scattering of light among molecules changes according to pressure variation. Computer simulation was required in the study of coesite, found on a crater produced by a comet or asteroid that hit Mexico and led to extinction of the dinosaurs.
When German researchers zoomed in to the nanometer scale on time-lapse images of dissolving crystals, they found a surprise: Dissolution happened in pulses, marked by waves that spread just like ripples on a pond.
By seeing which way the wind blows, a University of Texas at Dallas fluid dynamics expert has helped propose a solution to a Martian mountain mystery. Dr. William Anderson, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering, co-authored a paper published in the journal Physical Review E that explains the common Martian phenomenon of a mountain positioned downwind from the center of an ancient meteorite impact zone.
Mapping common pathways along which the effects of natural and man-made disasters travel allows more flexible and resilient responses in the future, according to UCL researchers.
A detailed study of blue salt crystals found in two meteorites that crashed to Earth -- which included X-ray experiments at Berkeley Lab found that they contain both liquid water and a mix of complex organic compounds including hydrocarbons and amino acids.
Professor David Chen and Dr Li Jianfeng found the apparent temperature (AP)increased faster than air temperature (AT) over land in the past few decades, especially in the low latitude areas, and the rise is expected to continue in the future.
Though mass extinctions wiped out staggeringly high numbers of species, they barely touched the overall 'functional' diversity -- how each species makes a living, be it filtering phytoplankton or eating small crustaceans, burrowing or clamping onto rocks. University of Chicago scientists documented this surprising trend in a study on extinctions published Jan. 5 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.