University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have made it possible to remotely determine the temperature beneath the surface of certain materials using a new technique they call depth thermography. The method may be useful in applications where traditional temperature probes won't work, like monitoring semiconductor performance or next-generation nuclear reactors.
Cyanobacteria hardly need any nutrients and use the energy of sunlight. Bathers are familiar with these microorganisms as they often occur in waters. A group of researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has discovered that the multicellular species Phormidium lacuna can be genetically modified by natural transformation and could thus produce substances such as ethanol or hydrogen. They present their results in the online scientific journal PLOS ONE (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0234440).
A research team led by Prof. CUI Guanglei from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has proposed a new class of aqueous electrolytes, called hydrated eutectic electrolytes, to ensure better performance of aqueous Zn batteries.
Scientists at PPPL have gained new insight into a common type of plasma hiccup that interferes with fusion reactions. These findings could help bring fusion energy closer to reality.
Materials scientists have synthesized a new type of perovskite--one of the most common crystal structures of materials deployed for a range of uses, from superconductors to photovoltaics--that goes against conventional thinking about how such structures behave at extreme pressures such as those that exist deep in the Earth.
New research has shown that Drax power station in North Yorkshire is the optimal site for the carbon capture and storage facilities that will be needed reduce carbon emissions and achieve the targets of 2016 Paris Climate Agreement.
Explosive volcanic eruptions are possible deep down in the sea -- although the water masses exert enormous pressure there. An international team now reports how this can happen.
Superconducting coils in a fusion power reactor exert a huge electromagnetic force. The coils are supported by a structure of solid build. A group of fusion engineering researchers of the National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institute of Natural Sciences first applied topology optimization to the design of a helical fusion reactor. The group succeeded in reducing the weight of the coil support structure by about 25% while maintaining the strength.
In order to realize fusion energy, it is economically desirable to confine higher pressure plasma with the same strength of the magnetic field. A research team of fusion scientists has succeeded using computer simulation in reproducing the high-pressure plasma confinement observed in the Large Helical Device. This result has enabled highly accurate predictions of plasma behavior aimed at realizing an economical helical fusion reactor.
A new mathematical model for predicting variations in solar irradiance has been developed at Uppsala University. It may help to promote more efficient use of electricity from solar energy. In tests of various data models, the model proved capable of making highly reliable forecasts, and emerged as the best for this purpose in some respects. The results have now been published in two articles in the journal Solar Energy.