Since 2013, gifts and payments to doctors by pharmaceutical and medical device companies have been publicly reported. Some medical centers, employers, and states have banned or restricted detailing visits, physician payments or gifts. In order to better understand the effects of these changes, a team of researchers from Harvard Medical School, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, and the American Board of Internal Medicine conducted a national survey of internal medicine doctors.
Immunotherapy has been a major breakthrough in oncology -- but little is known about its safety for HIV-positive cancer patients. A study to be presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich has now provided data to suggest that treatment with PD-1/PD-L-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, which target the very system affected by the HIV virus, is feasible in this patient population for whom cancer is currently one of the principal cause of mortality.
Chemotherapy is known to have a negative impact on the reproductive potential of young breast cancer patients. Its effects on women's post-treatment fertility, however, are still poorly understood. A study to be presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich, has confirmed that natural pregnancies are possible after chemotherapy but that survivors' desire to have children decreases greatly after treatment, calling into question the need for systematic recourse to fertility preservation measures.
Women with HER2-positive early breast cancer with small tumours have similar disease-free survival and lower risk of cardiac toxicity with a nine-week course of adjuvant trastuzumab compared to those treated for one year, according to a subgroup analysis of the Short-HER trial reported at ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich.
A new study shows wide variation in prescriptions of sedative drugs, called benzodiazepines, to people with Medicare coverage. Some counties, especially in southern and rural western states, had three times the level of sedative prescribing as others. The study also highlights gaps at the level of individual prescribers: Some primary care providers prescribed sedatives more than six times more often than their peers. These high-intensity prescribers also tended to be high-intensity prescribers of opioid painkillers.
Men and women may need to be treated differently -- at least when it comes to some types of cancer. In an analysis to be presented at the ESMO 2018 Congress in Munich, data was pooled from four UK randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of first line chemotherapy in oesophagogastric (OG) cancer, finding significant differences in a number of important side-effects experienced by male and female patients.
A team of researchers has developed three-dimensional (3D) human tissue culture models for the central nervous system that mimic structural and functional features of the brain and demonstrate neural activity sustained over a period of many months. With the ability to populate a 3D matrix of silk protein and collagen with cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other conditions, the tissue models allow for the exploration of cell interactions, disease and response to treatment
MIT researchers have developed a cryptographic system that could help neural networks identify promising drug candidates in massive pharmacological datasets, while keeping the data private. Secure computation done at such a massive scale could enable broad pooling of sensitive pharmacological data for predictive drug discovery.
Scientists at Scripps Research have successfully tested a potential new smoking-cessation treatment in rodents.
The current study demonstrates a deleterious effect of midazolam administration prior to myocardial ischemia and reveals reduced circadian protein Period 2 (PER2) levels as the underlying mechanism. These findings highlight PER2 as a cardioprotective mechanism and suggest the PER2 enhancer nobiletin as preventative therapy for myocardial injury in the perioperative setting where midazolam pretreatment occurs frequently.