Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, working with Spanish, French, and German colleagues, have determined and analyzed the high-resolution structure of a protein from the recently discovered heliorhodopsin family. Microbial rhodopsins play a key role in optogenetics -- a technique that uses light to control nerve and muscle cells in living tissue.
Since its beginnings, quantum mechanics hasn't ceased to amaze us with its peculiarity, so difficult to understand. Why does one particle seem to pass through two slits simultaneously? Why instead of specific predictions can we only talk about evolution of probabilities? According to theorists from universities in Warsaw and Oxford, the most important features of the quantum world may result from the special theory of relativity, which until now seemed to have little to do with quantum mechanics.
An international team with the participation of Prof. Dr. Michael Kues from the Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD at Leibniz University Hannover has developed a new method for generating quantum-entangled photons in a spectral range of light that was previously inaccessible. The discovery can make the encryption of satellite-based communications much more secure in the future.
Scientists have developed a way of extracting a richer palette of colors from the available spectrum by harnessing disordered patterns inspired by nature that would typically be seen as black.
Physicists of the University of Würzburg, in a joint collaboration with colleagues from the University of Rostock, have developed a light funnel apparatus. It could serve as a new platform for hypersensitive optical detectors.
The potential of using erbium-contained organic materials to develop cost-effective electrically-driven light-emitting devices for silicon photonics is well proposed, but methods to increase the power efficiency are keenly sought. Scientists in the UK and China demonstrated a dramatic enhancement of erbium electroluminescence by mixing a phosphorescent iridium complex with a separated erbium complex at the molecular level. This innovation emphasizes the potential advantages of exploring molecular composites for efficient C-band light-emitting devices.
For the first time, researchers have fabricated high-performance mid-infrared laser diodes directly on microelectronics-compatible silicon substrates. The new lasers could enable the widespread development of low-cost sensors for real-time, accurate environmental sensing for applications such as air pollution monitoring, food safety analysis, and detecting leaks in pipes.
Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have explored how an excited state of matter -- excitons -- behaves in phosphorene, a two-dimensional material that could be used in LEDs, solar cells, and other optoelectronic devices. The researchers found that they can control whether excitons interact in one or two dimensions within phosphorene, enhancing its prospects as a new material in optoelectronic devices.
What is interaction and when does it occur? Intuition suggests that the necessary condition for the interaction of independently created particles is their direct touch or contact through physical force carriers. In quantum mechanics, the result of the interaction is entanglement - the appearance of non-classical correlations in the system. It seems that quantum theory allows entanglement of independent particles without any contact. The fundamental identity of particles of the same kind is responsible for this phenomenon.
Transistors work electrically, but data can be transmitted more quickly by using light. Scientists from Forschungszentrum Jülich have now come a step closer to integrating lasers directly in silicon chips. Together with researchers from Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies in Paris and the French company STMicroelectronics as well as CEA-LETI Grenoble, they have developed a compatible semiconductor laser made of germanium and tin, whose efficiency is comparable with conventional GaAs semiconductor lasers on Si.