Experts have reconstructed the depth of the Southern Ocean at key phases in the last 34 million years of the Antarctic's climate history
New work uncovers new details about our Solar System's oldest planetary objects, which broke apart in long-ago collisions to form iron-rich meteorites. Their findings reveal that the distinct chemical signatures of these meteorites can be explained by the process of core crystallization in their parent bodies, deepening our understanding of the geochemistry occurring in the Solar System's youth.
Meteorites give us insight into the early development of the solar system. Using the SAPHiR instrument at the Research Neutron Source Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), a scientific team has for the first time simulated the formation of a class of stony-iron meteorites, so-called pallasites, on a purely experimental basis.
The India-Asia collision is an outstanding smoking gun in the study of continental collision dynamics. Yuan and colleagues hypothesize that the Tethyan Himalaya terrane rifted from India after ~75 Ma, generating the North India Sea. They further document a new two-stage continental collision, first at ~61 Ma between the Lhasa and Tethyan Himalaya terranes, subsequently at ~53-48 Ma between the Tethyan Himalaya terrane and India, diachronously closing the North India Sea from west to east.
An international team of volcanologists working on remote islands in the Galápagos Archipelago has found that volcanoes which reliably produce small basaltic lava eruptions hide chemically diverse magmas in their underground plumbing systems - including some with the potential to generate explosive activity. These volcanoes might undergo unexpected changes to sudden such activity in the future.
The large-scale loss of eelgrass in a major California estuary -- Morro Bay -- may be causing widespread erosion. Over the last century, Morro Bay has been building up sediment quickly. After the die-off, however, erosion took place in more than 90% of the places where eelgrass previously grew.
X-ray experiments at Berkeley Lab played a key role in resolving the origin of rare, odd meteorites that have puzzled scientists since their discovery a half-century ago. Known as type IIE iron meteorites, they appear to have originated from a parent body that had a composition featuring both fully melted and unmelted parts - other meteorite types display only one composition.
An international team of researchers has published the most detailed submarine map of the Artic Ocean. The study, which counts on the participation of the experts Miquel Canals, José Luis Casamor and David Amblàs, from the Consolidated Research Group on Marine Geosciences of the University of Barcelona, has been published in Nature's journal Scientific Data.
A sonic boom-like seismic phenomenon of supershear rupture occurred during the 2018 Palu earthquake in Indonesia. University of Tsukuba researchers investigated the relationship between this phenomenon and the complex geometry of the Palu-Koro fault. An "inchworm-like" pattern of repeated rupture deceleration and acceleration along the fault was detected, associated with bends in the fault trace. This slip evolution may have enhanced the propagation of supershear rupture and contributed to the generation of the 2018 Palu tsunami.
Researchers studying lead white pigments on Andean ceremonial drinking vessels known as qeros have found new similarities among these artifacts that could help museums, conservators, historians and scholars better understand the timeline and production of these culturally significant items during the colonial period (1532-1821).