MSU geologists and their colleagues from South Africa and Novosibirsk studied the interaction between the oldest blocks of the Earth's continental crust. Detailed analysis of graphite and microscopic gas inclusions in quartz confirmed that it involved CO2-rich fluids. Understanding the formation processes of these rocks scientists could predict the mechanisms of mineral ore deposit generation near them and in the areas formed under similar conditions. The study was published in the Gondwana Research journal.
Scientists have confirmed for the first time that radical changes of one volcano in southern Japan was the direct result of an erupting volcano 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) away. The observations from the two volcanos -- Aira caldera and Kirishima -- show that the two were connected through a common subterranean magma source in the months leading up to the 2011 eruption of Kirishima.
Across the US Southwest, severe drought and land?use change are projected to increase in the future, contributing to more frequent and intense dust storms and eventually dry dust fallout and dust washout from the atmosphere with rain. How will Dust Bowl?like conditions affect raining dust events? We examined rainwater samples at two Texas sites (one arid, Guadalupe Mountains; one humid, Gulf coastal prairie) during 2012, a year of extreme drought and dust in Texas.
New work from a team led by Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets.
Most of the carbon resulting from wildfires and fossil fuel combustion is rapidly released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now shown that the leftover residue, so-called black carbon, can age for millennia on land and in rivers en route to the ocean, and thus constitutes a major long-term reservoir of organic carbon. The study adds a major missing piece to the puzzle of understanding the global carbon cycle.
Experiments replicating conditions at the core of the Earth could help scientists understand how the planet and its atmosphere were formed.
New images from the Juno spacecraft show an unusual 'footprint' of Jupiter's moons on their parent planet's aurora.
Hydraulic fracturing of organic-rich shales has become a major industry. The commonly used term for this extraction of hydrocarbons -- fracking -- is especially intriguing. Not only does it convey the process of breaking apart rocks, but the dividing of public opinion. Fracking is simultaneously hyped as a boon to the economy and a disaster to the environment.
Fiber-optic cables can be used to detect earthquakes and other ground movements. The data cables can also pick up seismic signals from hammer shots, passing cars or wave movements in the ocean. This is the result of a study appearing in the journal Nature Communications on July 3, 2018. Main authors are Philippe Jousset and Thomas Reinsch from GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. They carried out the investigation together with colleagues from Island, UK, Berlin, Germany, and Potsdam, Germany.
Yosemite National Park contains some of the world's most iconic landforms, including Half Dome, Yosemite Falls, and El Capitan. Although the cliffs of Yosemite Valley may appear static, rockfalls from these cliffs are common, with a rockfall occurring every four to five days on average. Rockfalls are key to shaping this iconic landscape but also pose risk to the four- to five-million visitors to the park annually.