If aerosol transmission of COVID-19 is confirmed to be significant, we will need to reconsider guidelines on social distancing, ventilation systems and shared spaces. Researchers in the U.K. believe a better understanding of droplet behaviors and their different dispersion mechanisms is also needed. In Physics of Fluids, the group presents a model that demarcates differently sized droplets. This has implications for understanding airborne diseases, because the dispersion tests revealed the absence of intermediate-sized droplets.
Researchers have been working for decades on improving the anti-icing performance of functional surfaces and work published in AIP Advances investigates a unique nanostructure, modeled on moth eyes, that has anti-icing properties. Moth eyes are of interest because they have a distinct ice-phobic and transparent surface. The researchers fabricated the moth eye nanostructure on a quartz substrate that was covered with a paraffin layer to isolate it from a cold and humid environment.
A novel mathematical modeling method has been developed to estimate operation models of biomolecular motors from single-molecule imaging data of motion with the Bayesian inference framework. The operation mechanism of a linear molecular motor "chitinase", which moves one-way on a chitin chain with degrading the chain passed by, was elucidated by mathematical modeling of experimental imaging data with the method.
A material composed of two one-atom-thick layers of carbon has grabbed the attention of physicists worldwide for its intriguing -- and potentially exploitable -- conductive properties. University of Texas at Dallas physicists are studying how the ability of twisted bilayer graphene to conduct electrical current changes in response to mid-infrared light.
Prof. WANG Guanghui and Prof. JIANG Heqing from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in collaboration with Prof. LIU Jian from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of CAS, recently proposed a nanoreactor strategy for scalable synthesis of the supported ultrafine bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs).
To fight viruses, cells can deploy defence enzymes that progressively destroy viral genome. However, this degradation mechanism is not effective against epidemic viruses like Zika. In fact, the defence enzyme jams at precise points of the viral genome, which assumes a "defensive" conformation. This is how the virus succeeds at protecting important pieces of its RNA inside infected cells, as demonstrated by a recent study coordinated by SISSA and published in Nature Communications.
"Core-shell" clusters pave the way for new efficient nanomaterials that make catalysts, magnetic and laser sensors or measuring devices for detecting electromagnetic radiation more efficient.
Skoltech researchers and their colleagues from Aalto University have discovered that electrochemical doping with ionic liquid can significantly enhance the optical and electrical properties of transparent conductors made of single-walled carbon nanotube films.
Scientists have found that a physical property called 'quantum negativity' can be used to take more precise measurements of everything from molecular distances to gravitational waves.
MIT researchers have introduced a quantum computing architecture that can perform low-error quantum computations while also rapidly sharing quantum information between processors. The work represents a key advance toward a complete quantum computing platform.