The fear that states in federal countries are destined to lose their powers to central government is unwarranted, new research at the University of Kent has found. An international project on centralization and decentralization in federations -- the first major study of its kind -- finds that centralization is not inevitable. Even the United States, where federalism is often seen as being at risk, is less centralized than many think.
In a new study published in the journal Health Economics, researchers at CDDEP, the University of Strathclyde in Scotland, and Wageningen University in the Netherlands developed a mathematical framework to estimate the value of investing in developing and conserving an antibiotic to mitigate the burden of bacterial infections caused by resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a pandemic influenza outbreak.
Experts from the Higher School of Economics have determined that domestic migration increases the speed at which Russia's regions approach one another in terms of salary levels. Further, the impact of migration on this process depends on migrants' education level. The results of the HSE study were published in the jour-nal Issues in Economics (Voprosy ekonomiki). https://voprecotest.elpub.ru/jour/article/view/1836
Fear in the wake of violent conflicts causes people to take fewer risks, which may come at the expense of bettering their lives and the economy. University of Colorado Denver researchers looked at longitudinal survey data taken before and after the onset of the Mexican war on drugs and found a causal link between the fear of violence and its impact on the risk-taking attitudes of individuals living in affected communities.
Researchers at Linköping University in Sweden call into question an influential theory of the self-reinforcing dynamics of urban growth. Their research, published in Science Advances, shows that big cities feed on their hinterlands to sustain growth, thereby escalating the urban-rural divide in economic prosperity and individual life chances. Individuals who leave small areas for large cities are better educated and have higher cognitive abilities than those who stay.
China, already the world's leading emitter of human-caused greenhouse gases, continues to pump increasing amounts of climate-changing methane into the atmosphere despite tough new regulations on gas releases from its coal mines, a new Johns Hopkins study shows.
The more a company's board is independent from management, the less likely it will become entangled in corporate misconduct, according to new findings, from a meta-analysis of 135 studies, published in The Journal of Management. The site of independence also matters. Independence on the audit committee particularly shelters firms from misconduct, researchers found. At the same time, levels of corruption in countries where firms are located can overpower the effects of board independence on misconduct.
Less data-sharing among firms can actually lead to more collusion, economists find.
Approximately one-third of all US-born US citizens living in the US are considering leaving to live abroad. Drawing on data collected in 2014, researchers Dr. Amanda Klekowski von Koppenfels from the University of Kent's Brussels School of International Studies, and Dr. Helen Marrow of Tufts University, USA, identified the reasons for this as: exploration (87.4 percent); retirement (50.8 percent); leaving a bad or disappointing situation in the US (49.0 percent); and working (48.3 percent).
In a new study, Robert Schwaller, KU associate professor history, argues that Spanish colonial records reveal that resistance by indigenous and African maroons, who were runaway slaves, not only tested Spanish economic and labor arrangements but also challenged European conquest itself.