Each year there are more than three million cases of cholera worldwide. Research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine now shows that giving a stronger single-dose of a live oral vaccine could be an effective tool in controlling outbreaks more quickly.
An alternative animal model that mimics key features of the Zika virus infection, including its lingering presence in bodily fluids, has been developed at Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio.
Epidemiological studies show that in utero fetal infection with the Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to microcephaly, an irreversible congenital malformation of the brain characterized by an incomplete development of the cerebral cortex. However, the mechanism of Zika virus-associated microcephaly remains unclear. An international team of researchers within the European consortium ZIKAlliance (coordinated by Inserm in France) has identified a specific mechanism leading to this microcephaly. Their findings are published this week in Nature Neuroscience.
Almost half of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV patients experience some degree of neurocognitive impairment (neuroHIV). To search for underlying pathology, scientists analyzed the brains of monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) then treated with cART. As reported in a new study in The American Journal of Pathology, the majority of the SIV-infected macaque brains showed signs of unusual lymphocyte-dominant inflammation, suggesting that persistent neuroinflammation may underlie cognitive problems in cART-treated HIV patients.
Researchers at the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have identified a novel molecular pathway by which a tumour suppressor, TIP60, inhibits the growth of cancer cells.
A new study finds that viruses share some genes exclusively with cells that are not their hosts. The study, reported in the journal Frontiers in Microbiology, adds to the evidence that viruses swap genes with a variety of cellular organisms and are agents of diversity, researchers say.
Osaka University researchers identify class of chemicals that can combat resistant strains of the hepatitis C virus, as well as parasites that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis
An analysis of HPV in men shows that infection with one type strongly increased the risk of reinfection of the same type. The study highlights the importance of vaccination for preventing the spread of HPV in young men before they become sexually active and in older men who have already contracted the virus.
Acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM), also known as mono or the 'kissing disease,' is caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). In a paper published this week in mBio, researchers connect the onset and severity of mono to T-cells that react to both EBV and the influenza A virus, which causes the flu. The study represents one of the first reported links between how a person's immune system responds to infection and receptors on T-cells, which instigate the immune response.
Three Phase 1 human clinical trials evaluating an Army-developed Zika purified inactivated virus (ZPIV) vaccine have shown it was safe and well-tolerated in healthy adults and induced a robust immune response. Initial findings from the trials were published today in The Lancet.