Early adulthood is particularly critical for putting on weight. According to a recent study conducted at the University of Helsinki, common factors among young women and men who succeeded in managing their weight in the long term included eating regularly rather than dieting.
Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes and spreads to bone, causing severe pain, fractures, and other complications. The mechanisms that allow cancer cells to modify bone remodeling are incompletely understood. Researchers at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified a microRNA, miR-940, that is abundant in exosomes secreted by prostate cancer cells and can trigger bone-forming lesions in mice. The findings indicate that microRNAs play a key role in bone metastatic environment and suggest potential novel therapeutic targets for bone metastasis.
Exposures of pregnant women and children to common thyroid-hormone-disrupting toxins may be linked to the increased incidence of brain development disorders, according to a review published in Endocrine Connections. The review describes how numerous, common chemicals can interfere with normal thyroid hormone actions, which are essential for normal brain development in fetuses and young children, and suggests a need for greater public health intervention.
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University studied the neural response of Japanese junior high school students learning English as a second language, while listening to English sentences. More proficient boys showed more activation in parts of the brain associated with grammatical rules (syntax); girls used a wider range of language information, including speech sounds (phonology) and meaning of words and sentences (semantics). These discoveries may help optimize how boys and girls are taught English.
A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggests that Transcendental Meditation is associated with a unique state of 'restful alertness.' The study, which monitored blood flow, found that, compared to eyes-closed rest, during Transcendental Meditation there was increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, indicating the sort of alertness also seen in other meditations. However, unlike other meditations, there was decreased activity in the cerebellum and pons, indicating deep rest.
In hookworms that infect and feed on the blood of mice, scientists have discovered a key step in blood digestion that can be targeted to disrupt the parasite's development and survival. These findings, published in PLOS Pathogens by Tiffany Bouchery of Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, New Zealand, and colleagues could help pave the way to new treatments against hookworms in humans.
The efficacy of target specific therapies in lymphoma is limited to subgroups of patients. EPFL scientists have identified a mechanism that confers resistance against a common therapy for lymphoma. They propose an alternative treatment that targets lymphoma signaling at its root, and show that it can be effective in a broader group of patients. The study is published in the journal Blood.
Despite confusing messages, new data shows all moderate or vigorous activity -- even when done in short bursts throughout the day -- can reduce Americans' risk of disease and death, according to research appearing in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
When two people coordinate their movements, such as by holding hands or moving furniture, they exchange physical cues through the objects that connect them. New research published in PLOS Computational Biology suggests that stiffer connections allow for better communication but require more effort to achieve coordination.
A team of engineers have developed miniaturized sensors that, when mounted directly on a tooth and communicating wirelessly with a mobile device, can transmit information on glucose, salt and alcohol intake. Researchers note that future adaptations of these sensors could enable the detection and recording of a wide range of nutrients, chemicals and physiological states.