Numerous studies to date have shown that olfactory receptors are relevant not only for smell perception, but that they also play a significant physiological and pathophysiological role in all organs. An overview of receptors detected so far and of the functions they fulfil within the human body is provided by researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum, published in the journal Physiological Reviews;.
A team of University of Iowa researchers built a web-based app called MapTrek. When synced with a Fitbit, MapTrek allows users to go on virtual walking tours of locations such as the Grand Canyon or Appalachian trail while competing against other users. A study showed MapTrek and Fitbit users averaged 2,200 more steps per day than a control group that used only Fitbits.
Researchers at York University's Faculty of Health have found that patients who have metabolic healthy obesity, but no other metabolic risk factors, do not have an increased rate of mortality. The results of this study could impact how we think about obesity and health.
The muscles of people in intensive care are less able to use fats for energy, contributing to extensive loss of muscle mass, finds a new study co-led by UCL, King's College London and Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust.
A review of more than 200 studies reveals that olfactory receptors -- proteins that bind to odors that aid the sense of smell -- perform a wide range of mostly unknown functions outside the nose. The function of extra-nasal olfactory receptors has the potential to be used in the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions such as cancer. The article is published in the July issue of Physiological Reviews.
A nationwide investigation of the prevalence and distribution of ticks and exposure to tick-borne diseases highlights the value of public participation in science. The study, published on July 12 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE, was conducted by Nathan Nieto of Northern Arizona University and colleagues, and funded by Bay Area Lyme Foundation.
When applied to cells, pulsed electric fields increase membrane permeability. Researchers have used this effect to force the diffusion of extracellular calcium into cells. Cell death occurs more easily in cancer cells since they are particularly sensitive to high amounts of calcium. Researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan have optimized pulsed electric field settings in an effort to attack cancer but leave healthy cells intact.
Heart health and gut health may be linked. A new study by San Francisco State University researchers finds that people with better cardiovascular fitness have more of a certain type of bacteria in their gut.
Research published in Experimental Physiology has indicated potential differences in heart health benefits of exercise intensity in teenagers. Teenage years are an important stage of life, with research suggesting it is a time during which heart diseases start to develop. This indicates that teenagers who participate in high intensity exercise have lower blood pressure. This may lead to a lower risk of developing heart disease later in life, but this requires confirmation with further research.
The southern Appalachian Mountains are home to 10 percent of global salamander diversity. But current predictions indicate that 70 to 85 percent of this habitat will become unsuitable for salamanders by 2080 due to rising temperatures caused by climate change. Clemson University scientists shows that this extinction risk might be overestimated, because previous research largely ignored the salamanders' abilities to acclimate. Riddell and Sears project that plasticity reduces extinction risk by up to 72 percent.