Researchers from the University of Freiburg are mapping the distribution of all proteins in mitochondria for the first time.
Every tissue has its own pattern of active alleles, a large-scale study led by an international team of scientists at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has found. Researchers of the former group of Denise Barlow were able to show that the differential allele activity is regulated by tissue-specific, regulatory DNA elements known as enhancers - a process that could also be involved in many diseases.
Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism.
To reign supreme in a colony, queen ants exude a special scent, or pheromone, on the waxy surface of their body that suppresses ovary development in their sisters, rendering the latter reproductively inactive workers that find food, nurse the young and protect the colony. Now, researchers at the University of California, Riverside have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms behind how ants sense these pheromones and how they control reproduction regulation and other social activities in ant communities.
Immortalization of cells is a necessary step in the development of cancer, and scientists think that the main cause is turning on an enzyme -- telomerase -- that lengthens chromosomal telomeres and prevents normal cell death. A new study by UC Berkeley scientists shows that turning on telomerase is not a one-step process. In melanoma, and probably other cancers, a mutation turns up telomerase slightly, keeping the cell alive long enough for other changes that up-regulate telomerase.
Wheat growers of the inland Pacific Northwest have been slow to adopt no-till farming, in part because short-term residue accumulation can encourage fungal soil-borne disease outbreaks. But over longer periods, researchers at Washington State University and the University of Idaho noticed fewer outbreaks in fields where no-till was practiced for multiple seasons. New and cutting-edge research featured in Phytobiomes, an open-access journal of APS, paves the way for further study of this phenomenon.
A new study suggests it may be possible to slow dangerous infections by manipulating the messages microbes send to one another, allowing the body to defeat an infection without causing the bacteria to develop resistance to the treatment.
EPFL scientists show how DNA is organized into specific regions, and that this depends on a combination of genomic distance and the presence of the CTCF protein.
The earliest introduction of domestic chickens and black rats from Asia to the east coast of Africa came via maritime trade routes between the 7th and 8th centuries AD. In a paper published today in the journal PLOS ONE, an international team of researchers, led by director Nicole Boivin of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, used new techniques to analyze ancient DNA and proteins from nearly 500 bone samples.
Hemorrhagic fevers are severe viral diseases that are often fatal. Researchers from the University of Basel have now identified messenger substances of the immune system, which in infected mice lead to the development of shock. These results, published in the scientific journal Cell Host & Microbe, open up new possibilities for the development of life-saving therapies.