Group A Streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses ranging from mild nuisances like strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease, also known as necrotizing fasciitis. Life-threatening infections occur when the bacteria spread underneath the surface of the skin or throat and invade the underlying soft tissue. Researchers have found two group A Streptococcus genes involved in invasive infections, which may be potential targets for therapeutics.
The German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina today opened its 2017 Annual Assembly in Halle (Saale), with this year's theme being "Genome Editing - Challenges for the Future". The two-day event sees distinguished international scientists come together to address new molecular biological methods that enable targeted genetic interventions.
Antibiotic use on people or pets, and use of biocidal cleaning products such as bleach, are associated with multidrug resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the home. This contamination of the home environment may contribute to reinfection of both humans and animals with MRSA, and to subsequent failure of treatment. The research is published Sept. 22 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.
Too much dietary manganese -- an essential trace mineral found in leafy green vegetables, fruits and nuts -- promotes infection of the heart by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The findings, reported this week in Cell Host & Microbe, add to evidence that diet modifies risk for infection and suggest that people who have excess levels of tissue manganese, potentially from dietary supplements, may be at increased risk for staph infection of the heart.
Scientists have found that ignored pieces of DNA play a critical role in the development of immune cells known as T cells. Such 'non-coding' DNA activates a change in the 3-D structure of DNA that brings together crucial elements necessary for T cell formation. This 'big bang' discovery may be unfolding throughout the animal and plant kingdoms as well as aid in combating diseases such as lymphoma and leukemia.
Two new Princeton-led studies provide a detailed look at an essential part of algae's growth machinery, with the eventual goal of applying this knowledge to improving the growth of crops.
From 2006 through 2011, Nepal conducted a mass immunization campaign against Japanese encephalitis -- a mosquito-borne viral disease. Now, investigators have reported in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that the vaccination effort prevented thousands of cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) and cut JE rates in Nepal by at least 78 percent.
Scientists have designed a synthetic molecule that can reactivate dormant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in mice and lead to the death of some of the infected cells, according to a study published in PLOS Pathogens.
Communication breakdowns between care facilities can pave the way for outbreaks of infection, according to research on the spread of an extensively drug-resistant bacterium.
An unexpected discovery has given a group of University of Illinois scientists a greater understanding of an important methane-producing enzyme called methyl-coenzyme M reductase, or MCR. Their findings overturn what was previously believed to be true in the field: that a set of unique modifications present in MCR were essential to how the enzyme functions.