In new studies conducted at UC San Francisco, a novel oxygen-delivery therapeutic restored the function of oxygen-starved heart tissue in an animal model of global hypoxia. Unlike its experimental predecessors, the new drug does not appear to cause systemic side effects or overcorrect with excessive blood oxygenation, which can itself be toxic. Instead, the new drug delivers its precious oxygen cargo only to the tissues that need it most.
Herpes is the dreaded 'gift that keeps on giving'. But could it also be taking our memories? Decades of research show a striking correlation between Alzheimer's disease risk and infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1) in people carrying a specific gene. Now, newly-available epidemiological data provide a causal link between HSV1 infection and senile dementia -- raising the tantalizing prospect of a simple, effective preventive treatment for one of humanity's costliest disorders.
In the ongoing chemical battles among bacteria and their microbial neighbors, a new toxin has been uncovered. This unfamiliar toxin behaves in a familiar way. Its actions against other bacteria resemble the mechanisms of cholera, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. Some bacteria deploying this toxin have safeguards against self-poisoning.
Scientists at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and the Stein Eye Institute have been awarded a $5.1 million grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine to advance the development of a novel therapy for blinding retinal conditions.
Researchers have for the first time been able to investigate the abundance and methyl modifications of all mitochondrial tRNAs in patients suffering from one of the most common inherited mitochondrial tRNA mutations. The analysis pipeline revealed quantitative changes that had dramatic effects on protein synthesis within mitochondria.
Bacteria and Archaea have developed many types of CRISPR-Cas systems to protect themselves from viruses. A search through metagenomic databases of microbes, many of them uncultivatable, unearthed the genes of the smallest known working Cas complex, Cas14, from the genome of a DPANN Archaea, a group of microbes with the smallest known geomes. Cas14 is being incorporated into a CRISPR diagnostic called DETECTR.
Stars, triangles and pentagons demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of bacterial cell division machinery.
Pioneering research has given a fascinating fresh insight into how animal nervous systems evolved from simple structures to become the complex network transmitting signals between different parts of the body.
In Central America, Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is spread by the 'kissing bug' Triatoma dimidiata. By collecting DNA from the guts of these bugs, researchers reporting in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases have described patterns in the behavior of the bugs, the strain of parasite, and the communities of microbes that interact with the parasite.
A new study shows that infants that are breastfed for at least six months have less antibiotic-resistant bacteria in their gut compared with babies breastfed for a shorter time. On the other hand, antibiotic use by mothers increases the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in infants.