Scientists have identified a new phylum of microbes found around the world that appear to be playing an important (and surprising) role in the global carbon cycle by helping break down decaying plants without producing the greenhouse gas methane. The phylum is named Brockarchaeota after Thomas Brock, a pioneer in the study of microbes that live in extreme environments who died on April 4.
New research from food scientists at the University of California, Davis, finds a wealth of potentially health-enhancing compounds and sugar molecules called oligosaccharides within chardonnay wine-grape pomace.
Research has identified critical factors that enable dangerous bacteria to spread disease by surviving on surfaces in hospitals and kitchens.
Multi-resistant pathogens are a serious and increasing problem in today's medicine. Where antibiotics are ineffective, these bacteria can cause life-threatening infections. Researchers at Empa and ETH Zurich are currently developing nanoparticles that can be used to detect and kill multi-resistant pathogens that hide inside our body cells. The team published the study in the current issue of the journal Nanoscale.
Researchers led by Professors Ivan Berg (University of Münster) and Wolfgang Eisenreich (Technical University of Munich) have new insights into the citric acid cycle: Certain bacteria can use this central metabolic pathway "backwards", but to do so they must have very high concentrations of the enzyme citrate synthase and of carbon dioxide. This pathway may be a relic from the early development of life.
With an artificial intelligence (AI) method developed by researchers at Aalto University and University of Helsinki, researchers can now link immune cells to their targets and for example uncouple which white blood cells recognize SARS-CoV-2. The developed tool has broad applications in understanding the function of immune system in infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.
Vigorous and rapid air exchanges might not always be a good thing when it comes to levels of coronavirus particles in a multiroom building, according to a new modeling study. Particle levels can spike in downstream rooms shortly after rapid ventilation.
"Our work adds to a growing body of literature that demonstrates the sustainability of current methods of disease control used by apple growers," said Wallis. While previous research investigated this question by looking at just the soil or microbes living on the plant surface, this is the first study to look at the impact of streptomycin on the endophytic leaf microbiomes, which are likely attributing more to host health than the surface microbes.
In a new study published in the Phytobiomes Journal, "Influence of plant host and organ, management strategy, and spore traits on microbiome composition," Dr. Frances Trail and her research group are interested in three factors that might attribute to microbial assemblage: the age of the plant, the organ or tissue type, and the management strategy. They followed a 3-year crop rotation that included corn, wheat, and soybean planted in a single field.
Teams from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS and the Vaccine Research Institute (Inserm/University Paris-Est Créteil) demonstrated that infection induces polyfunctional antibodies. Beyond neutralization, these antibodies can activate NK cells or the complement system, leading to the destruction of infected cells. Polyfunctional antibodies were found in all individuals (symptomatic and asymptomatic). These findings show that infection induces antibodies capable of killing infected cells regardless of the severity of the disease.