Accounting for cell components in saliva increases the reliability of biochemical tests for experience-driven epigenetic changes.
Genetic recombination is vital to natural selection, yet some species display far more crossover than others. Scientists in Rochester have discovered a gene in fruit flies that is responsible for the evolution of these recombination rates.
Genetic differences between two very similar fungi, one that led to Quorn™, the proprietary meat substitute, and another that ranks among the world's most damaging crop pathogens, have exposed the significant features that dictate the pair's very different lifestyles, features that promise targets for controlling disease.
By analyzing genes of two distinct groups of the KhoeSan, investigators were able to find a level of diversity and divergence in immune cell repertoires much higher than identified in any other population. The findings are described in an article published this month in The Journal of Immunology.
Fat cells can be damaged in a short amount of time when they are exposed to the fatty acid palmitate or the hormone TNF-alpha through a fatty diet, a new study shows. The researchers from Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research hope this new knowledge may be used to develop new preventive strategies for diabetes.
Scientists from the Institut Pasteur set out to understand how the demographic changes associated with the Neolithic transition also influenced the efficacy of natural selection. By comparing the genome diversity of more than 300 individuals from groups of forest hunter-gatherers (pygmies) and farmers (Bantu-speaking peoples), from western and eastern Central Africa, they discovered that the reason pygmies did not suffer from excessive deleterious mutations was because of their genetic diversity and their admixture with the Bantu peoples.
The vampire bat prefers to feed on domestic animals such as cows and pigs. When it does so, there is a risk of transmission of pathogens. Now, a new study describes a new DNA method to efficiently screen many vampire bat blood meal and fecal samples with a high success rate and thereby determine which animals the vampire bats have fed on blood from.
In recent years, researchers have firmly established that gene mutations appearing for the first time, called de novo mutations, contribute to approximately one-third of cases of autism spectrum disorder. In a new study, a team led by scientists at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have identified a culprit that may explain some of the remaining risk: rare inherited variants in regions of non-coding DNA. The findings are published April 20 in Science.
A research group at the Faculty of Science and Technology of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has managed to reliably identify the changes in the proteins altered by the UBE3A enzyme, responsible for Angelman syndrome. This disease causes problems in intellectual and motor development, epilepsy, difficulties in communication, and very few hours of sleep. Funding provided by the Angelman Syndrome Association has been a key factor in being able to complete the research.
Findings from Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE) researchers and their collaborators, published today in Cell, show that the aggressiveness of an individual prostate cancer can be accurately assessed by looking at how that tumor has evolved. This information can be used to determine what type and how much treatment should be given to each patient, or if any is needed at all.