Researchers at NHGRI have performed the largest GWAS study on type 2 diabetes in the sub-Saharan African populations, revealing an association between the disease and previously unlinked ZRANB3 gene. By using animal models, their results show that dysfunction of the ZRANB3 gene has major repercussions on insulin production. This link may hold key answers to the treatment of type 2 diabetes in all populations.
KAIST researchers have identified somatic mutations in the brain that could contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
An international Research Team led by Dr. Jeong Yoon-ha at Korea Brain Research Institute has published the results of its research in 'Autophagy'. Expected to develop the treatment for neurodegenerative disease utilizing TDP-43 protein.
Low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells. Researchers studied the effects of low doses of radiation in mice and found it increases the number of cells with mutations in p53, a well-known genetic change associated with cancer. However, giving the mice an antioxidant before radiation promoted the growth of healthy cells, which outcompeted and replaced the p53 mutant cells.
Under physiological conditions, only certain sequences within the genome, called flipons, are capable of dynamically forming either right- or left-handed DNA. When a flipon is left-handed, genes change the transcripts they produce, affecting how cells respond to their environment. The outcomes depend on both the shape and sequence of a gene's DNA, each feature encoding a different subset of genetic information: one dynamic, the other static. Both flipons and codons are subject to natural selection.
Waterhemp and Palmer amaranth, two aggressive weeds that threaten the food supply in North America, are increasingly hard to kill with commercially available herbicides. A novel approach known as genetic control could one day reduce the need for these chemicals. Now, scientists are one step closer.
Synthetic biologists seek to create new life with forms and functions not seen in nature. Although scientists are a long way from making a completely artificial life form, they have made semi-synthetic organisms that have an expanded genetic code, allowing them to produce never-before-seen proteins. Now, researchers reporting in Journal of the American Chemical Society have optimized a semi-synthetic bacteria to efficiently produce proteins containing unnatural amino acids.
Scientists at the University of Eastern Finland and the University of Oxford have shown that small RNA molecules occurring naturally in cells, i.e. microRNAs, are also abundant in cell nuclei. Previously, microRNAs were mainly thought to be found in cytoplasm. The scientists also discovered that microRNA concentrations in cell nuclei change as a result of hypoxia. The findings strongly suggest that microRNAs play a role in the expression of genes in the cell nucleus.
Gene identified in worms controls how resources are allocated for stress resilience, longevity and fertility.
Ant-acacia plants attract ants by offering specialized food and hollow thorns in which the ants live, while the ant colony in turn defends its acacia against herbivores. This mutualistic relationship only occurs in older plants. New findings from University of Pennsylvania plant biologists, identify the genetic pathway that appears to regulate the timing of the acacia's ant-sustaining arsenal.