Gut bacteria at a young age can contribute to multiple sclerosis disease onset and progression.
Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute (VTCRI) have revealed the pathology of cells and structures stricken by optic nerve hypoplasia, a leading cause of childhood blindness in developed nations.
University of California, Davis, researchers have identified a gene that enables resistance to a new devastating strain of stem rust, a fungal disease that is hampering wheat production throughout Africa and Asia and threatening food security worldwide.
A study of the colour patterns among wild flowers in a mountain valley has yielded a clue about how nature controls fundamental evolutionary change in all species.
In eukaryotic cells the proximity of the genes to the nuclear pores, which are found in the nuclear membrane, contributes to maintaining the integrity of the genome. This is due to the fact that the anchoring of DNA to the pore during transcription avoids the formation of DNA-RNA hybrids, which are a natural source of DNA breaks and genome instability.
Inappropriate use of control switches in the genome may weaken our body's defenses against illness and could contribute to leukemia. The new research examines the production of antibody proteins to fight infections. Antibodies are made by combining a few genes from a large selection but scientists are still trying to understand how this is controlled. This study identifies epigenetic switches that regulate gene selection, keeping the immune system health and active.
Scientists working in the vanguard of new genetic technologies have issued a cautionary call to ensure that possible applications in conservation will only affect local populations. In an article publishing Nov. 16 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, Neil Gemmell from the University of Otago, New Zealand, and Kevin Esvelt of MIT examine the possible consequences of the accidental spread of existing self-propagating gene drive systems.
The hypothesis assumes that an entirely new gene is produced from the non-stop frame on the antisense strand of a GC-rich gene after gene duplication, followed by the accumulation of base substitutions to produce a mature novel GC-rich gene.
Konstanz biologists discovered a relationship between 'handedness', brain structure and genes in extremely specialised cichlid fish.
Researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have successfully reversed type 1 diabetes in a mouse model by infusing blood stem cells pre-treated to produce more of a protein called PD-L1, which is deficient in mice (and people) with type 1 diabetes. The cells curbed the autoimmune reaction in cells from both mice and humans and reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice.