Group A Streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses ranging from mild nuisances like strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease, also known as necrotizing fasciitis. Life-threatening infections occur when the bacteria spread underneath the surface of the skin or throat and invade the underlying soft tissue. Researchers have found two group A Streptococcus genes involved in invasive infections, which may be potential targets for therapeutics.
Researchers added a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) to a conventional adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector used for gene transfer, and the modified vectors were able to establish colonies and maintain long-term transgene expression in HeLa cells.
The German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina today opened its 2017 Annual Assembly in Halle (Saale), with this year's theme being "Genome Editing - Challenges for the Future". The two-day event sees distinguished international scientists come together to address new molecular biological methods that enable targeted genetic interventions.
Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from obesity is an underlying cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. But the mechanism by which this occurs has remained cloaked, until now. In a paper, published in the journal Cell, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers identified exosomes -- extremely small vesicles or sacs secreted from most cell types -- as the missing link.
Following genetic studies of deformed calves research conducted at the University of Copenhagen is able to uncover a hitherto unknown disease found among Holstein cattle. The breeding bull from which the mutation and thus the deformation originate has now been put down to prevent the disease from spreading further.
In the future diabetics might benefit from getting insulin-regulating beta cells transplanted into their body because their own beta cells are destroyed or less functional. However, according to new stem cell research at the University of Copenhagen, the current way of producing beta cells from stem cells has significant shortfalls. The beta cells produced have some features resembling alpha cells.
Fresh analysis of how our cells store and manage DNA when they undergo cell division could give valuable insights into a rare developmental condition known as Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
How did Neanderthals grow? Does modern man develop in the same way as Homo neanderthalensis did? How does the size of the brain affect the development of the body? A study led by the Spanish National Research Council researcher, Antonio Rosas, has studied the fossil remains of a Neanderthal child's skeleton in order to establish whether there are differences between the growth of Neanderthals and that of sapiens.
In a major step forward, scientists at CSHLtoday publish a discovery about the molecular-genetic basis of neuronal cell types. Neurons are the basic building blocks that wire up brain circuits supporting mental activities and behavior. The study, which involves sophisticated computational analysis of the messages transcribed from genes that are active in a neuron, points to patterns of cell-to-cell communication as the core feature that makes possible rigorous distinctions among neuron types across the mouse brain.
Scientists have found that ignored pieces of DNA play a critical role in the development of immune cells known as T cells. Such 'non-coding' DNA activates a change in the 3-D structure of DNA that brings together crucial elements necessary for T cell formation. This 'big bang' discovery may be unfolding throughout the animal and plant kingdoms as well as aid in combating diseases such as lymphoma and leukemia.