Some people consider pufferfish, also known as fugu, a delicacy because of its unique and exquisite flavor, which is perhaps seasoned by knowledge that consumption of the fish could be deadly. Now, researchers have identified the major compounds responsible for the taste of pufferfish, minus the thrill of living dangerously. They report their results in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
An international collaboration including Osaka University researchers has found that a peptide hormone regulates two different cell division processes that generate centrally important structures for the flow of water through plants. By binding to different receptors, the hormone controls the formation of not only xylem (the vessels that transport water up from the roots), but also stomata (the leaf pores through which water evaporates).
For children--whose tiny bodies are still growing--chemotherapy and radiation treatments can cause lifelong damage. Now, scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have reported that a targeted therapy that blocks a protein called LSD1 was able to shrink tumors in mice with a form of pediatric brain cancer known as medulloblastoma. LSD1 inhibitors are currently under evaluation in clinical trials for other cancers. The study was published in Nature Communications.
Using active genetics technology, biologists at UC San Diego have developed the world's first CRISPR/Cas9-based approach to control genetic inheritance in a mammal. The achievement in mice lays the groundwork for further advances based on this technology, including biomedical research on human disease. Future animal models may be possible of complex human genetic diseases, like arthritis and cancer, which are not currently possible.
A team of scientists from Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (MSMU) together with their colleagues from leading scientific centers of Moscow and India described a number of genetic mutations causing Usher syndrome (inherited deaf-blindness). They found previously unstudied unique mutations in investigated DNA regions. The results of the study were published in the Ophthalmic Genetics journal.
Researchers have demonstrated for the first time how two molecular strategies can safeguard CRISPR gene-drive experiments in the lab, according to a study published today in eLife.
A small change in the genetic makeup of the South African Cape bee turns the socially organised animal into a fighting parasite. This change ensures that infertile worker bees begin to lay their own eggs and fight other colonies. In the current issue of the journal 'Molecular Biology and Evolution', an international research team led by Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) outlines for the first time the genetic basis for this rare phenomenon.
Using a tool first used for strep throat in horses, Houston Methodist researchers unveiled the secret life of flesh-eating bacteria, learning how it causes severe disease while living deep within muscle. The team focused on necrotizing myositis. The study appears Jan. 22 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Corresponding author James M. Musser says his team now has an in-depth understanding of the precise genes group A streptococcus uses to cause this deadly infection.
In the largest study of its kind, a team led by University of Pennsylvania researchers investigated the gut microbiomes of people from seven ethnically diverse populations from remote areas of Botswana and Tanzania. Their findings illuminate the relative impact of lifestyle, geography, and genetics in shaping the microbiome.
In the largest genetic study of osteoarthritis to date, scientists have uncovered 52 new genetic changes linked to the disease, which doubles the number of genetic regions associated with the disabling condition. Scientists analyzed the genomes of over 77,000 people with osteoarthritis. Their findings revealed new genes and biological pathways linked to osteoarthritis, which could help identify starting points for new medicines. Researchers also highlighted opportunities for existing medicines to be evaluated in osteoarthritis.