Obesity in expectant mothers may hinder the development of the babies' brains as early as the second trimester, a new study finds.
Biological sex is typically understood in binary terms: male and female. However, there are many examples of animals that are able to modify sex-typical biological and behavioral features and even change sex. A new study, which appears in the journal Current Biology, identifies a genetic switch in brain cells that can toggle between sex-specific states when necessary, findings that question the idea of sex as a fixed property.
In the largest study of its kind, researchers found that children whose mothers reported using cannabis during pregnancy were at greater risk of autism. The incidence of autism was 4 per 1000 person-years among children exposed to cannabis in pregnancy, compared to 2.42 among unexposed children.
New work identifies a potential therapeutic target for clogged arteries and other health risks that stem from an excess of harmful fats in the bloodstream. The study opens the door for the design of more specific MTP inhibitors that could reduce circulating triglyceride levels without the risk of unpleasant and serious side effects in the intestines and liver.
Research published in EPJ B revisits the Turing instability mechanism; proving mathematically how the instabilities which give rise to patterns can occur through simple reactions, and in widely varied environmental conditions.
Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in Kansas City, Missouri, and the Andalusian Center of Developmental Biology at Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain, have harnessed the technology to target gene messages (messenger RNA) involved in early vertebrate development.
When it comes to training neural circuits for tissue engineering or biomedical applications, a new study suggests a key parameter: Train them young. Training of engineered neurons has many applications in bioengineering and regenerative medicine. Techniques usually involve training cells after they have fully matured. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign researchers found that training them throughout early cell development and network formation led to lasting improvements in the connections, responsivity and gene expression of the resulting neural network.
A new analysis of sibling records from more than 300,000 individuals suggests that some parents continue to reproduce until they have children of both sexes.
One million years ago, the extinction of large-bodied plant-eaters changed the trajectory of life on Earth. The disappearance of these large herbivores reshaped plant life, altered fire regimes across Earth's landscapes, and modified biogeochemical cycling in such a way that Earth's climate became slightly colder.
New research published today in The Journal of Physiology shows that giving sildenafil (Viagra), which cause blood vessels to dilate, impairs the fetus' ability to redirect blood flow to essential organs in response to low levels of oxygen, impeding fetal growth. This study was conducted in an animal model of growth restriction where placental blood flow is restricted.