A new literature review from scientists at George Washington University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology suggests that nutrition and diet have a profound impact on the microbial composition of the gut.
Two complications have emerged as top priorities for spinal cord injury researchers -- neurogenic bowel and neurogenic bladder. Researchers have developed a framework for planning and executing the necessary research and established recommendations for translating findings into practical recommendations for community use by individuals with spinal cord injury.
Researchers from Osaka University and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology have cultured epithelial-like cancer cells on an artificial substrate and observed their collaborative self-organization into network structures that may function as nutritional conduits and provide vascular access. Understanding of the parameters that govern this coordinated behavior, including the various forces responsible, may explain tumor growth and metastasis, thus providing a basis for developing new anticancer drugs.
Five social scientists holed up in an Amsterdam hotel for a week with the goal of reaching a scientific consensus on how people form stereotypes. They emerged with a joint theory paper, which they published as a how-to guide March 9 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
A team of researchers from Indiana University School of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, have investigated how boosting energy levels within damaged nerve fibers or axons may represent a novel therapeutic direction for axonal regeneration and functional recovery.
Entrepreneurs seeking funds on business-oriented crowdfunding platforms should avoid over-emphasizing the social or environmental benefits of their start-ups or products if they are to maximize potential investment.
Accountable Care Organizations -- or ACOs -- formed for the first time in 2011, designed to combat rising medical costs and provide more coordinated care to Medicare patients. But the savings have been inconsistent nationwide. A new Portland State University study looked at what's driving those inconsistencies and what ACOs might do to resolve the issue.
A new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found that citizen science is reshaping research. It can greatly facilitate large-scale research by providing opportunities to study more topics while teaching people more about science and enhancing science education. The report is one of the first of its kind to examine the available information on citizen science projects and, through peer-reviewed evidence, clearly identify trends, weaknesses and opportunities for growth.
Researchers at Texas Heart Institute and UCLA crossed a major milestone in the development of a wirelessly powered, leadless pacemaker and further advanced the possibility of using wirelessly powered, biventricular pacing to address cardiac resynchronization challenges. In Nature Research Scientific Reports, they reported the first proof of the novel pacing system's ability to provide synchronized biventricular pacing in a closed chest and open chest, preclinical research model.
Academics at UCL have identified 18 reasons why megaprojects such as HS2 and Crossrail often fail, as well as 54 preventative solutions. For the first time, academics developed a systematic literature review of the causes and cures of poor megaproject performance. They identified six key themes and looked at areas where a project might fail, analysing the problems and solutions. The study was published in Project Management Journal.