MIT engineers have characterized the properties of the protective membrane around tumors and found that this lining may be a good target for therapies to prevent metastasis.
The progressive decline in brain function that can follow traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with complement activation, part of the immune system that contributes to inflammation and clears damaged cells. Inhibiting complement even two months after injury reduced brain cell inflammation and reversed mental losses, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina in the Journal of Neuroscience. These findings provide evidence for complement-inhibitor therapeutics for TBI management at all stages of disease.
A recently published study offers new clues as to why night shift workers are at increased risk of developing certain types of cancer compared to those who work regular daytime hours. Findings suggest that night shifts disrupt natural 24-hour rhythms in the activity of certain cancer-related genes, making night shift workers more vulnerable to DNA damage while also causing the body's DNA repair mechanisms to be mistimed to deal with that damage.
Deep learning is a potential tool for scientists to glean more detail from low-resolution images in microscopy, but it's often difficult to gather enough baseline data to train computers in the process. Now, a new method developed by scientists at the Salk Institute could make the technology more accessible--by taking high-resolution images, and artificially degrading them. The findings were published March 8, 2021, in the journal Nature Methods.
Understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain "plasticity" is crucial for explaining many illnesses and conditions. Neurocientists from Göttingen University and University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) managed to repeatedly image synapses, tiny contact sites between neurons, in awake adult mice. They are the first to discover that adult neurons in the primary visual cortex with an increased number of "silent synapses" lacking a certain protein, display structural changes previously only reported in young mice. Research published in PNAS.
The process of egg formation in fruit flies relies on physical phenomena analogous to the exchange of gases between balloons of different sizes, according to a study by MIT biologists and mathematicians.
New research published in two papers by UC San Diego scientists describes novel achievements designed to make the implementation of gene drives safer and more controllable. The new split drive and home-and-rescue systems address concerns about the release of gene drives in wild populations.
Researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine have successfully reprogrammed a glial cell type in the central nervous system into new neurons to promote recovery after spinal cord injury--revealing an untapped potential to leverage the cell for regenerative medicine.
Canadian Scientists and Swiss Surgeons discover the cause of excess post-surgical scarring. The finding could improve recovery from abdominal and pelvic surgery. The research published in Science, was conducted in mice and shows the excess scarring is caused by macrophages. The researchers also discovered two ways to inhibit this natural response. Macrophages are also present in humans. The team hopes to move to trials on human cells, soon, and eventually clinical trials.
The gene for Huntington's disease was found nearly 40 years ago, yet there are no approved treatments. A new study shows the problem may lie with slowed protein assembly.