A plant protein vital to chemical signalling between plants and fungi has been discovered, revealing more about the communication processes underlying symbiosis. Understanding this important relationship could have major consequences for developing more efficient and sustainable agricultural practices around the world.
Swiss scientists from the University of Geneva, Switzerland, and the University of Basel have created artificial viruses that can be used to target cancer. These designer viruses alert the immune system and cause it to send killer cells to help fight the tumor. The results, published in the journal Nature Communications, provide a basis for innovative cancer treatments.
In a small, randomized Phase I/II clinical trial (SAT1), researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine say a 100-year-old drug called suramin, originally developed to treat African sleeping sickness, was safely administered to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who subsequently displayed measurable, but transient, improvement in core symptoms of autism.
In a new study, scientists at the University of Texas at Dallas have found that some types of cancers have more of a sweet tooth than others. 'It has been suspected that many cancer cells are heavily dependent on sugar as their energy supply, but it turns out that one specific type -- squamous cell carcinoma -- is remarkably more dependent,' said Dr. Jung-whan 'Jay' Kim, senior author of the study.
A new study compares the two most common surgical therapies for obesity, known as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The results demonstrate that RYGB -- the more aggressive of the two surgeries -- produces profound changes in the composition of microbial communities in the gut, with the resulting gut flora distinct from both obese and normal weight patients, due to the dramatic reorganization of the gut caused by RYGB surgery, which increases microbial diversity.
Researchers in Japan have identified a receptor protein on the surface of heart cells that promotes chronic heart failure. The study, 'Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 exacerbates chronic cardiac dysfunction,' which will be published May 26 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, suggests that inhibiting this protein could help treat a disease that affects more than 20 million people worldwide.
NASA's Twins Study investigators met in Houston this week to discuss findings from the final data collections.
How water relates to and interacts with biological systems -- like DNA, the building block of all living things -- is of critical importance, and a Cornell University group has used a relatively new form of spectroscopy to observe a previously unknown characteristic of water.
Research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation Insight shows that cellular stress in the brain may contribute to development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Researchers at EMBL, ESPCI Paris, and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative have developed a new technique for rapidly sorting HIV viruses, which could lead to more rapid development of a vaccine for HIV, as they report in Cell Chemical Biology. The technique will enable scientists to identify specific features in the proteins on the virus's surface which are recognized by the immune system and elicit a response similar to that seen in elite controllers -- patients that are able to survive without antiviral treatment.