Original concerns that cloning caused early-onset osteoarthritis in Dolly the sheep are unfounded, say experts at the University of Nottingham and the University of Glasgow. The team, who published last year's Nottingham Dollies research which showed that the 8 year-old Nottingham 'Dollies' had aged normally, have now published a radiographic assessment of the skeletons of Dolly herself, Bonnie (her naturally conceived daughter) and Megan and Morag (the first two animals to be cloned from differentiated cells).
The most dramatic divergence between humans and other primates can be found in the brain, the primary organ that gives our species its identity. However, all regions of the human brain have molecular signatures very similar to those of our primate relatives, yet some regions contain distinctly human patterns of gene activity that mark the brain's evolution and may contribute to our cognitive abilities, a new Yale-led study has found.
Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have identified a signaling pathway that is essential for angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. The findings, published in Nature Communications, may improve current strategies to improve blood flow in ischemic tissue, such as that found in atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes.
The same bacteria present in primary tumors of patients with colorectal cancer are also present in liver metastases, a new study finds.
A detailed comparative analysis of human, chimpanzee and macaque brains reveals elements that make the human brain unique, including cortical circuits underlying production of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Two new studies on the evolutionary origin of teeth and of vertebra further illuminate the human connection to marine organisms that goes back millions of years. Both studies in the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) are published this week by Andrew Gillis and Katharine Criswell of the University of Cambridge, UK, who conduct research as Whitman Center Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole.
Cardiac fibrosis involves an increase of connective tissue in the cardiac muscle, causing a loss of function. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now discovered that fibrosis occurs less frequently when microRNA 29 (miR-29) is suppressed in cardiac muscle cells. Older studies had suggested that it was in fact low levels of miR-29 that caused fibrosis. The new insights point to potential new approaches for developing drugs against fibrotic diseases.
For the first time, a research team from the Cell and Developmental Biology (Bosch AG) working group at the Zoological Institute at Kiel University (CAU) has been able to prove that the bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays an important role in controlling peristaltic functions. The scientists published their results yesterday -- derived from the example of freshwater polyps Hydra -- in the latest issue of Scientific Reports.
Mussels protect themselves against environmental disturbances and enemies through a hard, calcareous shell. Increased ocean acidification makes it difficult for organisms to form their shells. In a study published today, in the international journal, Nature Communications, a group of scientists from the Kiel University and GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel show that mussel larvae react sensitively to ocean acidification, which leads to reduced calcification rates and shell dissolution.
A team of researchers at Whitehead has illuminated an important role for different subtypes of muscle cells in orchestrating the process of tissue regeneration. Notably, in the absence of these muscles, regeneration fails to proceed.