A team of Rutgers scientists have taken an important step toward the goal of making diseased hearts heal themselves -- a new model that would reduce the need for bypass surgery, heart transplants or artificial pumping devices.
Researchers have uncovered a microRNA cluster that regulates synaptic strength and is involved in the control of social behavior in mammals. The researchers presume that their discovery may point to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of social deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. The research is published today in EMBO Reports.
How does a normal cell turn into a deadly cancer? Seeking an answer to this Question researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin examined the tumor genomes of nearly 300 prostate cancer patients. Their findings describe the ways in which changes in the prostate cells' genetic information pave the way for cancer development. Using a newly developed computer model, it is now possible to predict the course of the disease in individual patients. The results of this study were now published in Cancer Cell.
Folate deficiency creates more problems in connection with DNA replication than researchers had hitherto assumed, researchers from the University of Copenhagen show in a new study. Once a person lacks folate, the damage caused by this cannot be reversed. The researchers therefore encourage people to be more aware of the level of folate in the blood.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly populations. Changes in the expression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzymes directly affect the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques, a neuropathological hallmark of AD.BACE1 mRNA level in AD subjects was significantly higher than those of healthy controls, whereas ADAM10 level was significantly lower in the AD subjects.
Medical University of Vienna professor Leopold Eckhart and colleagues have performed one of the largest comparative genomic studies to help determine the key molecular and evolutionary origins of mammalian adaptations seen in skin proteins. "The results of the present study provide important new data on the evolution of keratins that control the mechanical stability of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin," said Eckhart.
Researchers at the Salk Institute report which genes are turned on or off, and in which order, to orchestrate the cellular processes required to protect and repair the genome in response to DNA damage. The research, appearing in PNAS, reveals the genetic framework controlling a complex biological process that has broad implications for understanding how plants in particular, and organisms in general, cope with DNA damage to ensure long-term health and fitness.
When humans experience stress, their inner turmoil may not be apparent to an outside observer. But many animals deal with stressful circumstances -- overcrowded conditions, not enough food -- by completely remodeling their bodies. These stress-induced forms, whether they offer a protective covering or more camouflaged coloration, can better withstand the challenge and help the animal survive until conditions improve.
A recent experimental study conducted by researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Washington University in St. Louis, and Columbia University on nanoscale collagen fibrils reported on, previously unforeseen, reasons why collagen is such a resilient material.
Research in mouse cells identifies defective metabolic pathway in aging immune T cells. The pathway is critical for switching T cells from dormancy into illness-fighting mode. In experiments, researchers restored lagging T-cell function by adding small-molecule compounds. Findings suggest possible mechanism behind weakened immunity common in the elderly.