In the cities of developing nations, where unregulated antibiotic use is common and livestock jostle with people amid often unsanitary conditions, scientists have found a potentially troubling vector for the dissemination of anti-microbial resistant (AMR) bacteria -- wildlife.
Using a rat model for high blood pressure (hypertension), a common chronic cardiovascular condition, a University of South Florida team found that preexisting hypertension altered normal reflexes in the lungs to affect autonomic regulation of the heart when an irritant mimicking air pollution was inhaled. In particular, hypertension appeared to shift the reflex response from the 'fight-or-flight' parasympathetic nervous system to the sympathetic nervous system, which controls involuntary responses like heart rate while the body is at rest.
Some 9,000 years ago, residents of one of the world's first large farming communities were also among the first humans to experience some of the perils of modern urban living. Scientists studying the ancient ruins of Çatalhöyük, in modern Turkey, found that its inhabitants -- 3,500 to 8,000 people at its peak -- experienced overcrowding, infectious diseases, violence and environmental problems.
Alcohol use among Tanzanian youth is rising and the high density of alcohol selling outlets and alcohol advertisements coupled with low enforcement of minimum drinking age laws are likely facilitating this uptick. The volume of alcohol advertising that youth encounter in Tanzania is increasing as competition among global and local alcohol producers intensifies.
Picture the future. You can hop in your car or one from a ride-share, buckle up and tell the car where you want to go. During your ride, you can look up a few things online through your dashboard. Meanwhile, your whereabouts and other details are being tracked. As self-driving cars develop further, they will play a much larger role in the digital economy as car companies and others harness personalized customer information through geospatial and navigation technologies, according to a Dartmouth study.
The city of Amsterdam envisions a future where fleets of autonomous boats cruise its many canals to transport goods and people, collect trash, or self-assemble into floating stages and bridges. To further that vision, MIT researchers have given new capabilities to their fleet of robotic boats -- which are being developed as part of an ongoing project -- that lets them target and clasp onto each other, and keep trying if they fail.
A group of Italian researchers has developed a method that enables more efficient use of energy by smart homes that are connected to a microgrid -- a web of individualized units that are connected to one another and one common energy source. The findings address the need for efficient approaches to residential energy management by presenting a strategy that controls energy distribution.
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has announced the release of ActiveVision, a machine vision tool that transportation agencies can use to autonomously detect and report traffic condition changes. ActiveVision's algorithms process camera data to provide real-time information on weather conditions and other anomalies affecting congestion. Designed for integration with intelligent transportation systems (ITS), ActiveVision can be configured with existing traffic cameras to analyze roadway conditions with no human monitoring required.
Algal blooms in the Red Sea can be detected with a new method that accounts for dust storms and aerosols.
A study examined the U.S. Department of HUD Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD) program to understand residents' experiences and their perspective on the program. The study is among the first to examine the impact of RAD which aims to improve and preserve affordable housing by converting traditional public housing to rental assistance. The results indicate notable, and mostly positive, results associated with conversions according to residents.