The use of early physical therapy in a study of nearly 89,000 US adults with musculoskeletal pain of the shoulder, neck, knee and low back was associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent opioid use in an analysis of health insurance claims from 2007 to 2015. For patients who did use opioids, early physical therapy was associated with reduced opioid use for shoulder, knee and low back pain but not neck pain.
Synthetic psychoactive drugs have become a serious public health threat in recent years. This is particularly true of the fentanyls, a large family of synthetic opioids, which can be up to 10,000 times more potent than morphine. Synthetic opioids are highly addictive and, because of their potency, often prove fatal: among the roughly 72,000 drug overdose deaths in the US in 2017, some 30,000 were related to synthetic opioids.
Antipsychotic medications can have adverse effects, including those that are life-threatening. This observational study examined the association of antipsychotic medications prescribed for children and young adults without psychosis and risk of unexpected death, which includes deaths due to unintentional drug overdose or cardiovascular/metabolic causes. About 250,000 children and young people (ages 5 to 24) enrolled in Medicaid in Tennessee were included.
Consumption of alcohol or at least one drug was associated with over half the violent deaths that occurred in São Paulo City in the period analyzed.
An ultrarestrictive opioid prescribing strategy was associated with a reduction in the number of pills dispensed in a study of patients having surgery for gynecologic cancer, without changes in postoperative pain scores, complications or increases in prescription refill requests. Under the protocol, patients having ambulatory or minimally invasive surgery weren't prescribed opioids at discharge unless they required more than five doses of oral or intravenous opioids while in the hospital.
Peer-reviewed / Randomised Controlled Trial / People. Experimental drug reduced cannabis use and withdrawal symptoms compared with placebo.
Some nations -- but not the US -- provide heroin-assisted treatment and supervised consumption sites as approaches to reduce the harms caused by addiction to opioids. A new study finds that the experiences in other parts of the work find that providing supervised access to medical-grade heroin to people whose use continues after trying multiple traditional treatments has been successful in other countries, and should be piloted and studied in the US.
Taking opioids for the treatment of pain has been associated with increased risks of crashing among drivers, but it is unknown whether this applies to all opioids or pertains to specific opioids only. A new British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study found that the influence of single analgesic doses of methadone and buprenorphine -- two different opioids -- on driving performance was mild and below the impairment threshold of a blood alcohol concentration of 0.5 mg ml-1.
Persistent use of opioids by patients is a public health concern in the United States but not much is known about the effect of that use on patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This observational study included 5.7 million patients who underwent cardiac surgery and it compared outcomes among those with persistent opioid use or dependence and those patients without.
Several presentations at the 2018 Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Annual Meeting will explore novel approaches to monitoring real-time drug use in town and cities nationwide.