New research by scientists at the Prevention Research Center of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation has begun to identify these circumstances by examining relationships between early age of first intoxication (less than 15 years), drinking in different contexts such as one's own home, at friends' homes, or outdoor settings, and problems that arise in those contexts.
A genetic variant found only in people of African descent significantly increases a smoker's preference for cigarettes containing menthol, a flavor additive. The variant of the MRGPRX4 gene is five to eight times more frequent among smokers who use menthol cigarettes than other smokers. The multi-ethnic study is the first to look across all genes to identify genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarettes.
Driving while on prescription opioids plays an increasingly significant role in fatal motor vehicle crashes, irrespective of alcohol use and demographic characteristics, according to a new study at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The prevalence of prescription opioids detected for the years studied increased from 2 percent to 7 percent among crash initiators and from .9 percent to 4.6 percent among non-initiators.
A USC study in 93 people shows that e-cig users develop some of the same cancer-related molecular changes in oral tissue as cigarette smokers, adding to the growing concern that e-cigs aren't a harmless alternative to smoking.
A personal survey of patients with atrial fibrillatio, one of the most important causes of irregular heartbeats, has found that the majority of triggers for the condition are easily modifiable lifestyle choices, including alcohol, caffeine, exercise and lack of sleep.
According to a large-scale study of American high school students, legalizing medicinal marijuana has actually led to a drop in cannabis use among teenagers. The study, published today in The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse used the results of an anonymous survey given to more than 800,000 high school students across 45 states to calculate the number of teens who smoke cannabis.
For the first time, scientists discovered how neuroactive steroids naturally found in the brain and bloodstream inhibit the activity of a specific kind of protein called Toll-like receptors (TLR4), which have been known to play a role in inflammation in many organs, including the brain.
Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have developed a test that objectively measures pain biomarkers in blood. The test could help physicians better treat patients with precision medicine, and help stem the tide of the opioid crisis.
Adolescent cannabis use has been linked to an increased risk of depression and suicidal behavior in young adulthood, according to the first meta-analysis by a team of scientists at the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre and McGill University, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and Rutgers University-Camden, which is published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry today.
A new qualitative study from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health identifies several key lessons from early efforts to establish sanctioned safe consumption sites in five US communities. The results offer insights on one approach some localities are exploring to address the escalating drug overdose crisis in the US.