Food safety practices that Americans take for granted -- washing hands with soap, refrigeration, and not cutting raw meat and vegetables on the same surface without disinfection -- are not widely practiced in other places around the world, and researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences want to change that.
Tara C. Smith, Ph.D., a professor of epidemiology in Kent State's College of Public Health, published the findings of a study her lab conducted in 2015 that shows a higher-than-expected prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at beaches around Lake Erie.
Indiana University researchers have identified a way to block the ability of parasites that cause malaria to shield themselves against drug treatments in infected mice--a finding that could lead to the development of new approaches to combat this deadly disease in humans.
A chemical found in marijuana, known as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, has been found to potentially slow the process in which mental decline can occur in up to 50 percent of HIV patients, says a new Michigan State University study.
The Konstanz immunologist Professor Marcus Groettrup and his team have developed a procedure for preventing organ rejection in rats after renal transplantation, and for suppressing the creation of antibodies in the recipients' immune systems. Immunoproteasome inhibition, which suppresses the production of antibodies, is crucial to this process. The research results were published in Kidney International. The title of the original publication is: 'Immunoproteasome inhibition prevents chronic antibody-mediated allograft rejection in renal transplantation.'
Testing for drug use and disease in humans could soon be much simpler, thanks to new Swedish research. Whereas drug tests currently rely on blood or urine samples, researchers from the University of Gothenburg have identified a method for drug testing by analyzing various compounds in exhaled breath.
A compound found in seaweed could protect human skin from the damaging impact of the sun without causing harm to marine ecosystems.
Working at the UAB Zebrafish Research Facility, Daniel Gorelick, assistant professor of pharmacology and toxicology, has created zebrafish mutants in four different receptors -- found inside or on the surface of cells -- that respond to estrogens, and he has used the mutants to help unravel a novel mechanism of estrogen action on heart physiology. Broader use of the mutants may have significant implications for studies of estrogenic environmental endocrine disruptors.
A single dose of lithium chloride, a drug used to treat bipolar disease and aggression, blocks the sleep disturbances, memory loss, and learning problems tied to fetal alcohol syndrome, new experiments in mice show.
Compared to first-generation biofuels produced from foodstuffs, production of second-generation biofuels for daily use is an urgent issue. In this study, a novel carboxylate-type liquid zwitterion was developed as a solvent of biomass, which could dissolve cellulose with very low toxicity to microorganisms. Use of this novel solvent enables significant reduction of energy cost for ethanol production from non-food biomass. Thus, second-generation biofuel ethanol production is in sight of practical implementation.