Rats exposed in the womb and during lactation to plasticizing chemicals known as phthalates had fewer neurons and synapses than those that were not exposed, researchers report in a new study. The phthalate-exposed rats had reductions in the size of their medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region that regulates behavior, and showed deficits in cognitive flexibility. The variety of phthalates and quantities used in the study were environmentally relevant to human exposures, researchers said.
Nanoparticles with a wide range of applying, including medicine, damage cells of microalgae Heterosigma akashivo badly. This algae species is widely spread in the Russian Far East marine area. The acute toxic effect exhibited at concentrations of 100 mg/l of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) in the sea- or fresh water.
Many people view the Tibetan Plateau, or 'Roof of the World,' as a pristine alpine environment, largely untouched by pollution. But researchers, reporting in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology, have now shown that traditional Tibetan medicine exposes people and the environment to high levels of mercury and methylmercury.
Adult rats that had been exposed before birth and during nursing to a mixture of chemicals found in a wide range of consumer products have a smaller medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and perform worse on an attention-switching task than rats not exposed to the chemicals early in life. These findings, published in JNeurosci, demonstrate a long-term influence of endocrine-disrupting compounds on brain development.
A study finds that chemicals used in flame retardants, plasticizers and other commercial products are broken down through the process of metabolism into other compounds. Researchers say not enough is known about the dangers posed by those compounds, known as metabolites.
New research shows how two biological control agents have been effective in reducing the numbers of feral rabbits in Australia. Using data from the largest wild rabbit study in the world, scientists have examined the long-term interaction of myxoma and rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses.
New Yorkers are getting heavier. And, like people across the country, many have difficulty sleeping and are suffering from depression. Diabetes rates in NYC remain high and racial and ethnic disparities persist.
The NPS DataHub allows forensic chemists to share data on new drug analogs, including their chemical structures and signatures, which are the keys to identifying them in the lab. Identifying drugs quickly is critical. 'If people start overdosing and dying from a new drug analog, authorities need to identify it as quickly as possible,' said NIST research chemist Aaron Urbas. 'To focus your resources effectively, you need to know what you're looking for.'
The biomedical industry depends on blood from horseshoe crabs for drug and environmental safety testing -- but this commercial demand, together with capture for bait, climate change and habitat destruction, is threatening populations of these 'living fossils.' This in turn will detrimentally affect the surrounding ecosystem, such as migratory shorebirds who rely on horseshoe crab eggs for food. Sustainable alternatives to horseshoe crab blood tests should be developed in conjunction with better harvesting and conservation strategies.
The BfR's risk assessment relates to those mineral oil qualities which comply with the purity requirements for pharmaceuticals and for mineral oil authorized as food additives. Cosmetic products can contain mineral oils. These are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of different structures and sizes. A distinction should be made between mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). The latter could potentially contain carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds.