A new study by UAlberta biologists shows the first evidence of apoptosis, or programmed cell death in algae. The outcomes have broad-reaching implications, from the development of targeted antibiotics to the production of biofuels in industry.
Rice University scientists build a model to predict how long, on average, it takes to eradicate a bacterial infection with antibiotics. The model could help doctors fight resistance by prescribing antibiotics that neither over- or under-dose a patient.
When you flush the toilet, you probably don't think about the traces of the medicine and personal care products in your body that are winding up in sewage treatment plants, streams, rivers, lakes, bays and the ocean. But Rutgers scientists have found that bacteria in sewage treatment plants may be creating new contaminants that have not been evaluated for potential risks and may affect aquatic environments, according to a study in Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a global public health threat causing serious illness and even death. In a study published today in Genome Research, researchers conducted a survey of 20 municipal wastewater plants in England, and isolated drug-resistant Enterococcus faecium from all sites in both untreated and treated wastewater plants except three, which use ultraviolet light disinfection. A genomic comparison of E. faecium isolates from wastewater and bloodstream isolates of infected patients revealed two major lineages.
An interdisciplinary team of scientists has identified a new mobile DNA element in the Wolbachia parasite, which may contribute to improved control strategies for mosquito vectors of diseases such as Dengue and West Nile virus.
An international team led by Osaka University researchers has shown how the Salmonella protein RamR senses bile acids present in the gut, leading to the activation of a multidrug efflux system that helps bacterial cells to get rid of toxins. This system helps the bacteria to survive and colonize this habitat despite harsh conditions. These findings could form the basis for new therapeutic approaches aimed at combating bacterial infection.
A multi-disciplinary team of biological engineers, microbiologists, and systems biologists at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering working on the Institute's DARPA-supported 'Technologies for Host Resilience' (THoR) Project, whose goal it is to uncover the causes of tolerance to infection exhibited by certain individuals or species, has now succeeded in modeling infection of human colon with EHEC in vitro using a microfluidic Organ-on-a-Chip (Organ Chip) culture device.
Irrigation water's E. coli results can differ between labs, test types.
Natural selection predicts that mutualisms -- interactions between members of different species that benefit both parties -- should fall apart. Individuals that gain from the cooperation of others but do not reciprocate (so-called cheaters) should arise and destabilize mutualisms. Yet to date, surprisingly little evidence of such cheating or destabilization exists. A team of biologists at the University of California, Riverside, has now found strong evidence of this cheating.
In newborn infants, gut microbiota is first conditioned by breast milk components. When solid food is introduced, gut microbiota develops and bacteria proliferate. Scientists have discovered that a key immune response is generated in mice when solid food is introduced and microbiota expands. But, above all, they have shown that this immune reaction is essential as it is involved in educating the immune system and leads to low susceptibility to inflammatory disorders in adulthood.