Using freshly resected lung tissue from 21 patients and two distinct mouse models, tuberculosis researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the Africa Health Research Institute, or AHRI, have identified a protein that plays an essential role in host defense against this deadly disease.
EPFL scientists have discovered how a dysfunction in the immune system can cause an overload of a gut bacterium. The bacterium produces excess lactic acid, which in turn triggers the production of reactive oxygen species that cause damage to cells and many age-related pathologies.
Purple phototrophic bacteria -- which can store energy from light -- when supplied with an electric current can recover near to 100 percent of carbon from any type of organic waste, while generating hydrogen gas for use as fuel. This novel finding is reported in open-access journal Frontiers in Energy Research.
A widely used probiotic stimulates bone formation in young female mice, according to a study published Nov. 13 in the journal Immunity. In response to treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), other intestinal microbes produced a metabolite called butyrate, which in turn activated bone-enhancing immune cells, including regulatory T cells.
In support of a microbial connection between fiber and heart health, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have identified a particular fatty acid as the mechanism behind certain protective effects of a high-fiber diet in a mouse model. Known as butyrate, this fatty acid is produced by certain bacteria in the gut as they digest plant fiber.
Pneumococci are the most common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis, as well as of severe infections like pneumonia and meningitis. A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden published in Nature Microbiology shows how the bacteria can inhibit immune cell reaction and survive inside cells to give rise to pneumonia.
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered a new and important function of a toxin produced by disease-causing bacteria that could have significant implications for future vaccine design.
Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection.
Researchers have now published the first estimates of antibiotic and pesticide 'planetary boundaries' in the journal Nature Sustainability. The researchers suggest that if resistance to antibiotics and pesticides goes beyond these boundaries, societies risk large-scale health and agricultural crises. The results indicate one group of bacteria has passed a boundary.
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the cornea are a leading cause of blindness and cannot be effectively managed with current ophthalmic antibiotics. A team of investigators has now devised a combination therapy that largely circumvents resistance, and quickly and effectively eradicated bacterial keratitis in 70 percent of animal models treated.