Just a few doses of an experimental drug can reverse age-related declines in memory and mental flexibility in mice, according to a new study by UC San Francisco scientists. The drug, called ISRIB, has already been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse cognitive impairments in Down Syndrome, prevent noise-related hearing loss, fight certain types of prostate cancer, and even enhance cognition in healthy animals.
Is the eye a window to the brain in Sanfilippo syndrome, an untreatable form of childhood-onset dementia, Australian researchers ask in a new publication. The findings of the NHMRC-funded project, just published in international journal Acta Neuropathologica Communications, highlight the potential for using widely available retinal imaging techniques to learn more about brain disease and monitor treatment efficacy.
Healthy cells and cells with Type 2 diabetes use completely different pathways to manage blood sugar levels, according to results from a study in mice. Researchers used a trans-omic approach, combining data from genes (transcriptomics) and metabolites (metabolomics) to identify and connect the many separate processes involved in responding to glucose. Obese mice lack most of the rapid response to glucose found in healthy metabolism, instead relying on much slower methods like changing gene expression.
Having children doesn't just make you feel like you've aged overnight -- a new study led by Penn State researchers found that the number of times a person gives birth may also affect the body's physical aging process.
In recent decades, researchers have found that most mammals' guts are surprisingly complex environments - home to a variety of microbial ecosystems that can profoundly affect an animal's well-being. Scientists have now learned that the bear appears to be an exception, with its gut playing host to a microbial population that varies little across the intestinal tract.
Via circuit tracing and behavioral manipulation using optogenetics, a new study shows that a region of the prefrontal cortex connects to the superior colliculus to override the SC's reflexive action when executive control is necessary.
Human fingerprints have a self-regulating moisture mechanism that not only helps us to avoid dropping our smartphone, but could help scientists to develop better prosthetic limbs, robotic equipment and virtual reality environments, a new study reveals.
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba used a cocktail of antibiotics to deplete gut microbes in mice. They found that metabolites in the gut differed in these mice compared with controls. In particular, metabolic pathways involved in making important neurotransmitters like serotonin were affected. Additionally, these mice showed abnormal day-night distribution in sleep/wake patterns, particularly the amount of REM sleep, and frequent transitions between REM and non-REM sleep episodes.
Japanese researchers have found a new neural pathway that links the circadian clock, stress, and wakefulness in mammals. They identified a neuron that becomes excessively active when the mammal is under stress, which could trigger insomnia and other sleep disorders.
The combination of mild electrical stimulation and heat shock at 42 °C (MES+HS) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in a mouse model of nephrotic syndrome (NS) by inhibiting apoptosis (cell death) of kidney cells. Clinical data have shown that the medical device used for this therapeutic approach is safe in humans. Researchers believe that it can be applied clinically to control the pathologies of NS.