In proof-of-concept experiments, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have highlighted a potential therapy for a rare but potentially deadly blood-clotting disorder, TTP. The researchers deliver this therapeutic enzyme via the cellular equivalent of a Trojan Horse, using tiny blood cell platelets as their protective delivery vehicle, with a key enzyme hidden inside.
Diabetes is not the only disease on which insulin has an effect, it appears. In a new study that involved tests on mice researchers from the University of Copenhagen, among others, have discovered a new method for treating chronic colitis with regular insulin. The researchers have set up a company with a view to testing the treatment and hopefully making it available to patients.
Most patients with type 2 diabetes are treated with a 'one-size-fits-all' protocol, but this approach can leave many cases inadequately managed. New work by scientists at Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Massachusetts General Hospital indicates that inherited genetic changes may underlie the variability seen among diabetes patients, with different physiological processes potentially leading to high blood sugar. This work represents a first step toward using genetics to identify subtypes of type 2 diabetes.
Attention has focused on how NSAIDs may cause dysfunction of the immune system. Researchers now have found that sub-acute pretreatment with the NSAID carprofen before experimental heart attack in mice impaired resolution of acute inflammation following cardiac injury. They focused on three aspects of the inflammation resolution axis -- cardiac function, leukocyte profiling and inflammation-resolution markers.
A novel mathematical approach has uncovered that some animal cells have robust 12-hour cycles of genetic activity, in addition to circadian or 24-hour cycles.
Body organs such as the intestine and ovaries undergo structural changes in response to dietary nutrients that can have lasting impacts on metabolism, as well as cancer susceptibility, according to Carnegie's Rebecca Obniski, Matthew Sieber, and Allan Spradling. 'Children born to malnourished mothers often struggle with obesity later in life and our findings could explain the physiology of why that happens,' Obniski explained.
Although depression is one of the leading psychiatric disorders in Germany, its cause remains unclear. A recent study at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (MPI CBS) in Leipzig, Germany, found that those affected by depressive disorder have a larger hypothalamus compared to their healthy counterparts. This could explain why many sufferers show increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol and are very often afflicted with periods of tension.
A few minutes of high-intensity interval or sprinting exercise may be as effective as much longer exercise sessions in spurring beneficial improvements in mitochondrial function, according to new research. The small study is published ahead of print in the American Journal of Physiology -- Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
A new study is challenging the long-held belief that specialization in mammal backbones date back to the earliest land animals. Evidence suggests that the spine gained regions during mammal evolution, with the first -- located in close proximity to the shoulders and front legs -- appearing some 250 million years ago, just as dramatic changes began to appear in the forelimbs of animals known as non-mammalian therapsids.
Brains of baby boys born prematurely are affected differently and more severely than premature infant girls' brains. This is according to a study published in the Springer Nature-branded journal Pediatric Research. Lead authors Amanda Benavides and Peg Nopoulos of the University of Iowa in the US used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as part of an ongoing study on premature babies to examine how the brains of baby boys and girls changed and developed.