It is difficult to distinguish males from females among King Penguins, but a new Ibis study reveals that King Penguins can be sexed with an accuracy of 100% based on the sex-specific syllable pattern of their vocalisations. Using the beak length, King Penguin individuals can be sexed with an accuracy of 79%.
Carbon monoxide can improve the effectiveness of antibiotics, making bacteria more sensitive to antibiotic medication, according to a study led by Georgia State University.
Iron deficiency in the first four weeks of a piglet's life - equivalent to roughly four months in a human infant - impairs the development of key brain structures, scientists report. The abnormalities remain even after weeks of iron supplementation begun later in life, the researchers found.
Glial cells may modulate the release of neurotransmitters -- chemicals that relay signals between nerve cells -- by increasing the acidity of the extracellular environment.
A University of Texas at Dallas psychologist has examined the preconceptions about the effects of emotions on children's eating habits, creating the framework for future studies of how dietary patterns evolve in early childhood. Dr. Shayla C. Holub, associate professor in the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, demonstrated that children from 4½ to 9 years old chose chocolate candy over goldfish crackers more frequently in response to both happiness and sadness.
Researchers at Duke University have created a framework for helping bioengineers determine when to use multiple lines of cells to manufacture a product. The work could help a variety of industries that use bacteria to produce chemicals ranging from pharmaceuticals to fragrances.
Previous studies with older NFL football players have found a high incidence of sleep apnea, a serious health issue, among the group, particularly among older linemen. Now, a study with college-age linemen suggests that the roots of this health problem in football players may begin much earlier, and at an age when the condition is much less likely to occur in the general population. Body training specific to linemen appears to be related.
Significant amounts of toxic metals, including lead, leak from some e-cigarette heating coils and are present in the aerosols inhaled by users, according to a study from scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Two novel ocular hypotensive agents that have just been approved for use in humans -- netarsudil and latanoprostene bunod (LBN) -- greatly reduce intraocular pressure, with lasting results in various animal models of glaucoma and in humans.
Brown University researchers have shown that reinforcement learning and working memory -- two distinct brain systems -- work hand-in-hand as people learn new tasks.