Regular exercise prevents oxidative stress-induced muscle wasting, at least partially by improving the antioxidant defense system. In the present study, we found that regular endurance exercise enhances the expression of p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and its phosphorylation at Ser 351 thereby dissociating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) from Keap1, which results in increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. These findings suggest that Ser 351 phosphorylation of p62 plays a critical role in this regulation.
Even with a good diet and workout routine, some men and women have trouble getting the toned abdominal appearance they want. For these patients, a technique called abdominal etching can help in creating the classic 'six-pack abs' physique in men or three-vertical-line abdomen in women, reports a study in the April issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery®, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS).
In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) clinical trial and its long-term follow-up study, among the persons who lost at least 5 percent of their body weight during the first year, long-term maintenance of weight loss was more likely if they had been assigned to treatment with metformin than with placebo or lifestyle intervention. Being older and losing a greater amount of weight in the first year were the most consistent predictors of lasting weight loss.
In the largest study of its kind, researchers from the Musculoskeletal Research Unit at the University of Bristol have identified the most important risk factors for developing severe infection after knee replacement. Patients who are under 60 years of age, males, those with chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, liver disease, and a higher body mass index are at increased risk of having the joint replacement redone (known as revision) due to infection.
Scientists from Sanford Burnham Prebys have uncovered a molecular signaling pathway involving Stat3 and Fam3a proteins that regulates how muscle stem cells decide whether to self-renew or differentiate -- an insight that could lead to muscle-boosting therapeutics for muscular dystrophies or age-related muscle decline. The study was published in Nature Communications.
In the first North American stem cell clinical trial for osteoarthritis of the knee patients, 12 patients were given injections of their own stem cells and followed for 12 months. The results show a significant improvement in pain levels and quality of life.
Researchers have developed a technique to improve the characteristics of engineered tissues by using ultrasound to align living cells during the biofabrication process.
In a new study conducted in rats, researchers found a four-week period of rest was nearly as effective as an experimental drug at reducing discomfort and regaining function after an injury from repeated moderate-strain activity. The findings are relevant to treating common musculoskeletal disorders caused by overuse, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, tendinitis, tendinosis and low back pain.
Some studies have suggested that minerals such as zinc and iron may play a role in how multiple sclerosis (MS) progresses, once people have been diagnosed with it. But little was known about whether zinc, iron and other minerals play a role in the development of the disease. A new study shows no link between dietary intake of several minerals and whether people later develop MS.
The April issue of Neurosurgical Focus contains 15 new articles on the principles of enhanced recovery after surgery and how these principles relate to spine surgery.