The connection between bird diet and skull shape is surprisingly weak for most species according to a new study led by UCL and the Natural History Museum, rewriting our understanding of how ecosystems influence evolution. Charles Darwin's 19th century observations of finches on the Galápagos Islands concluded that bird speciation was primarily influenced by ecosystem; the way a bird forages and eats forms its skull shape and drives evolutionary change.
Researchers have found evidence for humans hunting small mammals in the forests of Sri Lanka at least 45,000 years ago. The researchers discovered remains of such animals, including primates, with evidence of cut-marks and burning at the oldest archaeological site occupied by humans in Sri Lanka, alongside sophisticated bone and stone tools. This is an example of the uniquely human adaptability that allowed H. sapiens to colonize extreme environments apparently untouched by its hominin relatives.
In two back-to-back symposia at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C., on Sunday, Feb. 17 at 1:30 and 3:30 PM respectively, a cross-disciplinary cohort of scientists will present the first comprehensive investigations of how humans interacted with plant and animal species in different cultures worldwide through time.
Food regulations targeted at reducing obesity make a positive impact on those most likely to purchase the family's food -- mothers. A study conducted jointly by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, Diego Portales University, and University of Chile found that Chilean mothers understood and perceived the benefits of the country's new policies aimed at combating childhood obesity and that their awareness influenced their spending habits.
Providing additional support to women in Burkina Faso can boost rates of exclusive breastfeeding.
Researchers have identified a rare type of cancer cell that cannot make cholesterol, a key nutrient. By targeting this deficiency, scientists may be able to develop new strategies for treating the disease.
Researchers found 14 per cent of sausages contained meat ingredients not indicated on the label. This is down from a first-ever study conducted by the same researchers just over a year ago that revealed a 20-per-cent mislabelling rate. Using DNA barcoding technology, the researchers tested sausages labelled as beef, chicken, pork or turkey. They also tested the samples for sheep, goat and horse.
Research indicates that cutting out specific foods can alleviate the gastrointestinal issues some people experience when they exercise, with over two-thirds of people involved in a new study reporting an improvement.
Immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with coeliac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation, suggests a new study involving researchers at Cardiff University.
Research published in Experimental Physiology has suggested that the efficiency with which we transport oxygen to our tissues (cardiorespiratory fitness) is a far greater predictor of gut microbiota diversity than either body fat percentage or general physical activity.