New study reveals that a male fruit fly's decision to court or ignore a female stems from the convergence of motivation, perception and chance. The triad affects the balance of excitatory versus inhibitory signals in the brain to influence decision making. Findings may yield insights about addiction disorders, depression.
Each memory is stored in a specific population of neurons called engram cells. When a memory is linked with another to generate an associative memory, two memory traces overlap. At the same time, individual memories maintain their own identities. Using two overlapping fear memories in mice, researchers show that synapse-specific plasticity guarantees both storage and identity of individual memories. They also show that memory traces no longer exist in the brain after complete retrograde amnesia.
Arranging into well-organized fibrillar aggregate, commonly known as amyloid fibril is an inherent property of any polypeptide chain. Amyloid fibrils are associated with a number of severe human pathologies like the Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes and many more. This review article includes the recent studies of identification and characterization of possible conformations of proteins which can act as aggregation precursor state (APS).
In this article, together with a review of the literature, we report two cases of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii neonatal meningitis following ruptured myelomeningocele, treated with intravenous colistin with favorable results.
Research in mice shows that a pharmacological strategy can alleviate multiple behavioral and cellular deficiencies in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of intellectual disability.
Supplementing a single protein found in the spinal cord could help prevent symptoms of Lou Gehrig's disease, according to a new study out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. Researchers found high levels of the protein -- called mitofusion 2 or Mfn2 -- prevented nerve degeneration, muscle atrophy, and paralysis in a mouse model of the disease. Since Mfn2 is often depleted during Lou Gehrig's, the new study suggests supplementing it could be a novel therapeutic approach for the disease.
Researchers carried out studies in animal model that mimics condition in children and adolescents considered at risk for development of the disease in adulthood. Young and hypertense rats displaying cognitive and social impairments as well as hyperlocomotion have reached a healthy adulthood after being treated with daily doses of sodium nitroprusside doses for 30 days.
The longer an individual waits for a reward, the less willing they will be to give up pursuit of the reward, a new study in mice, rats and humans reports.
A team of bioengineers at UC San Diego has answered a question that has long puzzled neuroscientists, and may hold a key to better understanding the complexities of neurological disorders: why are neuron axons designed the way they are? The answer -- that they're designed to balance the speed that information flows into the neuron relative to the time it takes the neuron to process that information -- seems intuitive, but has never been quantified until now.
Stressful situations affect the brain and body differently in people with schizophrenia compared to people without the mental illness or individuals at high risk for developing psychosis, a new CAMH study shows. The relationship between two chemicals released when people experienced stress -- one released in the brain and the other in saliva -- differs in people with schizophrenia. The discovery, recently published in the journal Brain, may provide clues into how to act early to prevent schizophrenia.