Researchers tracked genomic alterations detected in patient samples during tumor cell evolution in culture, in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models from the cultures, as well as before and after treatment in patients. In a recent paper in Nature Genetics, the team reports that tumor progression was often driven by cancer-promoting genes, known as oncogenes, on extrachromosomal pieces of DNA.
Whenever there's a mismatch between what you expect to experience and what you actually experience, the brain has to register the error and update your expectation. These changing expectations are fundamental for making decisions. A new study is the first to show how your midbrain responds to the error, and the orbitofrontal cortex updates the information. That's how you know what to expect tomorrow.
For more than a third of children living with epilepsy, the currently approved medications do not stop their seizures. Researchers at the Cumming School of Medicine have developed a new drug screening method to discover drugs to treat epilepsy.
At the Janelia Research Campus, postdoctoral research scientist Mark Cembrowski, who is part of Group Leader Nelson Spruston's lab, has been leading an effort to parse the cellular, molecular, and behavioral components of spatial recognition. Their discoveries, described April 19 in the journal Cell, offer new insight into the neuroscience of memory-guided navigation.
Using a machine-learning system known as a deep neural network, MIT researchers have created the first model that can replicate human performance on auditory tasks such as identifying a musical genre. This type of model can shed light on how the human brain may be performing the same tasks.
Scientists have for the first time found direct causal links between the neurotransmitter dopamine and avoidance -- behavior related to pain and fear. Researchers have long known that dopamine plays a key role in driving behavior related to pleasurable goals, such as food, sex and social interaction. In general, increasing dopamine boosts the drive toward these stimuli. But dopamine's role in allowing organisms to avoid negative events has remained mysterious.
Probably the last place anyone would want to find airborne polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) is in the kitchen, yet that's exactly where scientists detected their presence, according to a new report in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology. They say that the PCBs, which are widely considered carcinogenic, are unwanted byproducts of sealant breakdown in modern kitchen cabinetry.
A study headed by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and the Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie (IECB) in France proposes that the presence of two beta-amyloid molecules bound together (beta-amyloid dimers) could provide a new biomarker for AD.
People who have tried unsuccessfully to prevent migraine with other treatments may find relief with a drug called erenumab, according to a preliminary study released today that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 70th Annual Meeting in Los Angeles, April 21 to 27, 2018.
Epigenetic programming following early life stress likely results from a dual-activation of the stress system and the sensory systems. Further research is warranted.