Mildly stressing muscle metabolism boosts levels of a beneficial hormone that prevents obesity and diabetes in mice, according to a new University of Iowa study. The findings, published in the EMBO Journal, show that triggering ER stress in mouse muscle cells causes them to produce and secrete significant amounts of the anti-diabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which then has widespread beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism.
Mitochondrial diseases are a diverse group of disorders caused by mutated genes that impair energy production in a patient's cells, often with severe effects. Patients with these diseases incur high medical costs for hospitalization, and suffer higher-than-typical rates of comorbid diseases and in-hospital mortality. Researchers who analyzed those costs say their findings underscore the importance of developing preventive strategies and therapies for these illnesses.
New findings from mouse models reveal that the type of immune response that helps maintain healthy metabolism in fatty tissues, called type 2 immunity, also drives obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The work, led by NIAID scientists, shows the inflammatory environment in the fatty liver is more complex than previously thought. These insights may inform the development of new NAFLD treatments and immune-altering therapies for obesity and related health issues in people with NAFLD.
A large, nationally representative survey in 2013 of adults in China finds that the estimated overall prevalence of diabetes was about 11 percent and that of prediabetes was nearly 36 percent, according to a study published by JAMA.
Researchers have found that patients with acute heart failure and diabetes, compared with those without diabetes, have distinct markers related to inflammation, cardiovascular function, and kidney health.
A recent study from New Zealand's University of Otago shows for the first time that taking 2-minute brisk walks every 30 minutes and a half-hour walk each day reduces blood lipid levels when measured in response to a meal consumed around 24 hours after starting the activity.
The first results from a functional genetic catalogue of the laboratory mouse has been shared with the biomedical research community, revealing new insights into a range of rare diseases and the possibility of accelerating development of new treatments and precision medicine.
Discovered more than two decades ago, the hormone leptin has been widely hailed as the key regulator of leanness. Yet, the pivotal experiments that probe the function of this protein and unravel the precise mechanism of its action as a guardian against obesity are largely missing.
Researchers at The University of Texas at Dallas are getting more out of the sweat they've put into their work on a wearable diagnostic tool that measures three diabetes-related compounds in microscopic amounts of perspiration. In a study published recently in Nature Scientific Reports, the team describes their wearable diagnostic biosensor that can detect three interconnected compounds - cortisol, glucose and interleukin-6 - in perspired sweat for up to a week without loss of signal integrity.
Insulin in the brain may help regulate the hunger sensation and improve functional connectivity in certain cognitive brain regions (default-mode network, DMN *) as well as in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. This is the finding of a new study by researchers at the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) in Tübingen.