Some people are better protected than others against urinary tract infections. This may be because their bodies produce more of a protein called uromodulin. An interdisciplinary research team has now found out exactly how this helper protein brings relief when nature calls and how this knowledge might benefit the treatment and prevention of these painful inflammations.
In a major clinical trial, clinicians have found the drug allopurinol does not prevent worsening of kidney disease, despite up to 20 per cent of kidney disease patients being prescribed the medication.
The sugar coating on cancer cells helps them thrive, and a new study indicates patients with cervical cancer who make antibodies to those sugars appear to do better when they also receive internal radiation therapy.
Researchers in Japan have replicated cancer cells from diseased bladder tissue in dogs, minimizing the use of costly stem cell products. The synthesized tumor cells allow scientists to diagnose cancer and optimize treatment without putting the patient through tiresome rigors of chemotherapy trial and error.
Researchers at Kumamoto University, Japan have discovered that uric acid, an antioxidant, protects against declining lung function, especially in women. High uric acid levels can cause health problems, but this study showed that it protects against lung function decline in females. The function of uric acid and other antioxidants in the lungs, as well as gender differences, will likely be considered for prospective management of lung diseases.
For years, researchers have known that men of African ancestry are at greater risk of developing prostate cancer with research suggesting that inherited factors may contribute to their greater risk. A new USC study is the first to identify an inherited genetic variant associated with higher risk of prostate cancer in men of African descent that contributes to the clustering of prostate cancer cases within families. The variant could serve as a guide for screening.
A research group from the Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG) at Kumamoto University, Japan has discovered that the gene C19ORF57 plays a critical role in meiosis. The gene appears to be related to the cause of male infertility and could be a big step forward for reproductive medicine.
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio researchers confirmed the role of a certain protein, Nox4, in the development of high-grade kidney cancer. The researchers also showed that a higher level of the protein can be used as a marker to predict in humans which tumors will develop treatment resistance and progress more rapidly.
The amount of scarring in damaged kidneys as a result of diabetes or acute injury, is a key factor in determining treatment. But it has not been possible, using traditional techniques, to quickly and accurately assess how widespread this kind of wounding extends within the organ. Now, however, a physicist and chemist at Georgetown University Medical Center has shown that a microscope he began developing with colleagues at University of California-Irvine can provide an immediate answer.
An immunotherapy drug called 'avelumab' has been shown to significantly improve survival in patients with the most common type of bladder cancer, according to results from a phase III clinical trial led by Queen Mary University of London and Barts Cancer Centre, UK.