Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes inflammation and ulceration of the gut that are associated with an abnormal immune system. Researchers in Tokyo showed that a transcriptional co-factor expressed in scavenger white blood cells contributes to IBD disease development by altering the production of immune system signaling molecules, and modifying the cellular phenotype. Mice overexpressing this protein developed more severe inflammation than controls, suggesting that a treatment targeting the protein could be used to alleviate IBD.
A research team at the University of Kent has established the first long-term cultivation system at a laboratory scale for the parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the world's worst and most common causes of diarrhea and death from diarrhea.
Researchers at NYU Langone Health's Perlmutter Cancer Center report that at least three kinds of bacteria in the mouths of Americans may heighten or lower their risk of developing esophageal cancer.
An Alberta-led clinical trial has shown Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) is effective in treating clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections whether delivered by colonoscopy or by swallowing capsules. The finding, published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association, could revolutionize and broaden the use of FMT, which restores the healthy balance of bacteria living in the intestine by transferring a healthy donor's stool to the gut of a person with C. difficile.
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have shown that a new targeted treatment could benefit patients with certain pancreatic tumors by preventing spread of the cancer and protecting their heart from damage -- a direct result of the tumor. Higher levels of serotonin among other tumor secretions can cause injury to the valves of the heart over time, leading to cardiac impairment -- a condition referred to as cardiac carcinoid disease -- in these patients.
An Alberta-led clinical trial has shown Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) is as effective in treating clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections whether delivered by colonoscopy or by swallowing capsules.
The lining of the intestines -- the epithelium -- does more than absorb nutrients from your lunch. It grows, shrinks, and adjusts the very makeup of its cells in response to whatever you just ate. And understanding that process might just give scientists new insights into the behavior of cancer cells.
Exposure to antibiotics in mothers may increase risk for inflammatory bowel diseases in their offspring.
Biliary atresia is the most common cause of liver transplants for children in the United States. Researchers report in Science Translational Medicine finding a strong biomarker candidate that could be used for earlier diagnosis and lifesaving treatments that could avoid more invasive procedures like liver transplant. A research team led by Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center identified molecular markers of the disease in blood samples that accurately diagnosed the condition with greater than 90 percent sensitivity.
Research comparing cystic fibrosis patients in the United States and Canada showed that, although patients' nutritional status and lung function improved in both countries from 1990 to 2013, the US improvement rate was faster. Nutritional status and lung function are related to survival in cystic fibrosis. U.S. improvements may be due to implementation of newborn screening, quality improvement initiatives for the disease and better healthcare access under the Medicaid Children's Health Insurance Program, signed into federal law in 1997.