Studies of the microbiome in the human gut have largely overlooked non-bacterial microbes: viruses, protists, archaea and fungi. Now research in mice points to a significant role for fungi, called the mycobiome, in the intestine. "We showed that the gut mycobiome of healthy mice was shaped by the environment, including diet, and that it significantly correlated with metabolic outcomes," said Kent Willis, M.D.
Adhesions are scars in the abdomen, which can occur after surgery, often have serious consequences. Now, researchers from the University of Bern and Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, in collaboration with Canadian researchers, have discovered how such adhesions form. The findings may help to develop a drug to prevent adhesions in the future. The study was published as the cover story of Science magazine.
At the beginning of an immune response, a molecule known to mobilize immune cells into the bloodstream, where they home in on infection sites, rapidly shifts position, a new study shows. Researchers say this indirectly amplifies the attack on foreign microbes or the body's own tissues.
University of Queensland researchers have provided clues to how the gut and brain work together by studying health data from nearly half a million people.
A machine learning algorithm helps accurately differentiate benign and premalignant colorectal polyps on CT colonography scans, according to a new study.
Results from a large prospective study indicate that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which also causes heartburn symptoms, is linked with higher risks of various cancers of the larynx (or voice box) and esophagus. The study is published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.
Treating diverticulitis in the outpatient setting with the antibiotic combination amoxicillin-clavulanate may reduce the risk for fluoroquinolone-related harms without adversely affecting diverticulitis-specific outcomes. As such, physicians may want to consider choosing amoxicillin-clavulanate over metronidazole-with-fluoroquinolone for patients with a first occurrence of diverticulitis. Findings from two nationwide cohort studies are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
In African Americans, the genetic risk landscape for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is very different from that of people with European ancestry, according to results of the first whole-genome study of IBD in African Americans. The authors say that future clinical research on IBD needs to take ancestry into account.
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine identified new therapeutic targets for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that could lead to new treatment options for patients.
What if a simple urine sample could detect cancer in its very earliest stages when the disease responds more favorably to treatment and improved outcomes are more likely? That was the question posed by scientists at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), who have found a way of zeroing in on early-stage cancer by analyzing short strands of cell-free DNA in urine. Their study's findings were published today in the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine.