Men may recover more quickly from influenza infections because they produce more of a key lung-healing protein, a study from scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests.
Severe infections leading to hospitalizations during childhood are associated with lower school achievement in adolescence, reports a study in the July issue of The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (PIDJ). The official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases, PIDJ is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.
A Yale-led team of researchers have created a vaccine that protects against malaria infection in mouse models, paving the way for the development of a human vaccine that works by targeting the specific protein that parasites use to evade the immune system. The study was published by Nature Communications.
Aeras, a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing vaccines against tuberculosis (TB), today announced the publication of the full results from a Phase 2, randomized, controlled clinical trial of two TB vaccines-- the currently available BCG vaccine and an investigational vaccine, H4:IC31--in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are protein-based structures that mimic viruses and bind to antibodies. Because VLPs aren't infectious, they show promise as vaccine platforms for many viral diseases, including influenza. Since details about influenza VLPs are scant, a team of researchers developed a 3D model based on the 1918 H1 pandemic influenza virus. The research, conducted by NIAID scientists, could benefit VLP vaccine projects, targeting a range of viruses from HIV to Ebola and SARS coronavirus.
Among the most serious consequences of the opioid epidemic is the spread of hepatitis C among injecting drug users. A study published in Science Translational Medicine shows that if a hepatitis C vaccine were successfully developed, it would dramatically reduce transmission of hepatitis C among drug users -- even though it's unlikely such a vaccine would provide complete immunity.
Specific immune danger signals are highly efficient in triggering immune responses in infants and newborns, whose immune systems function very differently to those of adults. The scientists believe their discovery could reduce both the age at which vaccines can be first administered, and the need for multiple booster shots.
In their latest study, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI) report that individuals who had been inoculated with the newer pertussis vaccine as part of their initial series of shots, mount a weaker recall response when receiving booster shots later on.
Researchers have shown that higher levels of Plasmodium falciparum antibodies are protective against severe malaria in children living in Papua New Guinea. Children who have higher levels of antibodies to a specific short amino acid sequence in the malaria parasite, P. falciparum, have much lower rates of clinical and severe malaria. This amino acid sequence, an antigen, is similar among P. falciparum strains elsewhere in the world, suggesting that this antigen would make a good target for a malaria vaccine.
A team of researchers led by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's Dan H. Barouch, M.D., Ph.D., in collaboration with Janssen Vaccines & Prevention and others, evaluated a series of preventative HIV vaccine regimens in uninfected human volunteers. In a similarly designed study, Barouch and colleagues tested the same vaccine for its ability to protect rhesus monkeys challenged with an HIV-like virus from infection. The findings showed the vaccines induced robust and comparable immune responses in humans and monkeys and protected monkeys against infection.