A major route toward creating effective vaccines against dengue virus and Zika involves the E protein that covers the surface of each viral particle. But creating such a vaccine has proven difficult for a number of reasons. Now UNC School of Medicine researchers have delineated the details of one major barrier to a promising vaccine. It's something we all have -- a natural body temperature of about 98.6 degrees.
A new study shows that a kind of E. coli most associated with 'travelers' diarrhea' and children in underdeveloped areas of the world causes more severe disease in people with blood type A. The bacteria release a protein that latches onto intestinal cells in people with blood type A, but not blood type O or B, according to a study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.
New research in mice suggests that chronic infection with intestinal worms indirectly reduces the number of cells in lymph nodes near the skin, inhibiting the immune system's response to the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis. Xiaogang Feng of Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues present these findings in PLOS Pathogens.
Research conducted in vitro shows two human antibodies made in response to vaccination against one hemorrhagic fever virus can disarm a related virus, for which there is currently no vaccine. The proof-of-principle finding identifies a common molecular chink in the two viruses' armor that renders both vulnerable to the same antibodies. The results set the stage for a single vaccine and other antibody-based treatments that work against multiple viral 'cousins' despite key differences in their genetic makeup.
Historically, our view of host defense against infection was that we must eliminate pathogens to eradicate disease. However, this perspective has recently been challenged as scientists have taken a lesson from plant biologists about an ancient strategy involving the ability to 'tolerate' rather than 'resist' infection to maintain health. This concept, referred to as 'disease tolerance,' provides an opportunity to develop new strategies that mitigate the consequences of infection.
Prophylactic mass vaccination programmes are not a realistic option in the battle to prevent new Ebolavirus outbreaks, a University of Kent-led research team has shown.
New evidence published today in the Cochrane Library shows that human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines protect against cervical lesions in young women, particularly in those who are vaccinated between the ages of 15 and 26. It also summarizes findings on harms that have been assessed in randomized controlled trials.
A new collaborative study has identified and studied Ebola antibodies that could be used to design universal therapeutics that are effective against many different Ebola species. The findings were recently published in Nature Microbiology.
New research from Public Health Ontario and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences suggests that whooping cough cases in Ontario are nearly eight times the number actually reported, reinforcing the importance of up-to-date vaccinations to protect against illness and the spread of disease.
Researchers have been able to capture images of measles viruses as they emerge from infected cells, using state of the art cryo-electron tomography techniques. The new images will help with a greater understanding of measles and related viruses, and could give hints on antiviral drug strategies likely to work across multiple viruses of this type.