Seven types of bacteria and certain immune factors in a woman's vagina and cervix may be responsible for increasing the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) or protect against it, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Maryland School of Medicine. Results of the study provide groundbreaking information that the authors suggest could help physicians better predict preterm birth, especially for African-American women early in pregnancy.
From 1999 to 2017, 38,942 US children ages 5 to 18 years old were killed by firearms, averaging more than 2,000 deaths a year. In 2017 alone, 2,462 school-age children were killed by firearms compared to 144 police officers and 1,000 active military worldwide who died in the line of duty. The study finds significant increases that began with an epidemic in 2009, followed by another one in 2014. Each of these epidemics has continued through 2017.
Immune cells called inflammatory monocytes are often one of the first responders to infections, but they actually facilitate the progression of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in mice, according to a study published March 21 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Lena Heung and Tobias Hohl of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. According to the authors, these disparate results indicate that inflammatory monocytes possess a plasticity of function that can regulate infection outcomes, making them an important target for immunomodulatory therapies against C. neoformans.
An interdisciplinary team of scientists has identified a new mobile DNA element in the Wolbachia parasite, which may contribute to improved control strategies for mosquito vectors of diseases such as Dengue and West Nile virus.
More than one-third of healthcare workers were contaminated with multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) after caring for patients colonized or infected with the bacteria, according to a study published today in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. The study found that 39 percent of workers made errors in removing personal protective equipment (PPE), including gowns and gloves, increasing the incidence of contamination.
The first large-scale study of autism in China has revealed that around one in a hundred people in the country has an autism spectrum condition -- the same figure as found in the West.
A researcher at Washington University in St. Louis travels the Americas, collecting feces from nonhuman primates to determine the risk of Zika reservoirs.
New ECDC/WHO Tuberculosis surveillance data for Europe show that despite an overall decline in numbers of people suffering from TB, the disease remains a major public health challenge in the Region. Of the 275,000 new diagnoses and relapses, an estimated 77,000 people suffer from difficult-to-treat multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries fare better, with only 1,041 people reported to have MDR-TB.
Death rates from breast cancer are predicted to fall in all European Union (EU) countries in 2019 with the exception of Poland, according to new research published in the leading cancer journal Annals of Oncology. In their annual predictions for cancer deaths in the EU, Carlo La Vecchia and colleagues predict there will be 1.4 million deaths from all cancers in 2019.
A study of almost 500,000 women indicates that taking paracetamol or other painkillers during pregnancy is not responsible for increasing the risk of asthma in children. The research, which uses prescription data on painkillers, does support earlier findings that women taking paracetamol during pregnancy are more likely to have children who develop asthma. However, it also suggests that the painkillers are not the cause of this increase.