Scientists from the University of California, Irvine School of Biological Sciences have discovered how to forestall Alzheimer's disease in a laboratory setting, a finding that could one day help in devising targeted drugs that prevent it. The researchers found that by removing brain immune cells known as microglia from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid plaques -- the hallmark pathology of AD -- never formed. Their study will appear Aug. 21, 2019 in the journal Nature Communications.
Cells regularly go through a process called autophagy -- literally translated as 'self-eating' -- which helps to destroy bacteria and viruses after infection. Now new research by the University of Plymouth has shed light on the mechanisms behind autophagy and how it progresses -- particularly relating to a process called liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS).
The association between type 2 diabetes and increased fracture risk is well documented. However, little was known about the possible effect of family history of diabetes on bone mineral density (BMD). A study from China now confirms that a history of first-degree family members with diabetes is linked to increased BMD as well as to insulin resistance. Results are published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
Researchers have identified key immunological changes in people who abruptly develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat, such as beef. The work is an important step in developing a treatment for the strange allergy triggered by tick bites.
In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes. IIASA researchers examined the association between castes and under-five mortality in an effort to help reduce the burden of under-five deaths in the country.
Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic and epigenetic signals. CNIO researchers now uncovers one of those epigenetic signals, after a detective quest that started almost a decade ago.
Every day, people are exposed to myriad chemicals both natural and synthetic, some of which may affect human physical development. Researchers from Boyce Thompson Institute have discovered nacq#1, a natural compound produced by a soil roundworm that dramatically influences time to sexual maturity and lifespan in tiny amounts. Because nacq#1 and its related nuclear receptors are so similar between the worm and humans, miniscule amounts of small molecules could similarly impact human development and lifespan.
More must be done to prevent elder abuse in the Chinese American community, according to four new Rutgers studies published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. The studies found that a history of abuse, lack of positive social support, and isolation from family significantly increase older Chinese Americans' risk of experiencing elder abuse, chronic health conditions, and even early death.
Data from Swedish national registers were used to examine the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempt in individuals diagnosed as children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared with people in the general population and with siblings of patients with IBD.
Case studies of individuals threatening mass violence suggest that extreme risk protection orders (ERPOs), colloquially known as 'red flag' orders, may play a role in preventing mass shootings. An aggregate summary and individual histories for a preliminary series of 21 cases are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.