No matter a patient's smoking history, when a targetable genetic alteration is present, matching the alteration with the appropriate targeted therapy is associated with a survival benefit of 1.5 years.
A new study shows that mutations in 'Ras' genes, which drive 25 percent of human cancers by causing tumor cells to grow, multiply and spread, can also protect cancer cells from the immune system. The research reveals that mutated Ras genes can suppress the immune system around tumors by increasing levels of a protein called 'PD-L1.' Small amounts of PD-L1 exist naturally in the body to prevent the immune system from attacking healthy cells, but cancer cells can exploit this to protect themselves.
Young adults who use electronic cigarettes are more than four times as likely to begin smoking tobacco cigarettes within 18 months as their peers who do not vape, according to new University of Pittsburgh research. The findings demonstrate that e-cigarettes are serving as a gateway to traditional smoking, contrary to their purported value as a smoking cessation tool. The study is the first nationally representative survey that followed for more than a year people 18 to 30 years old who were initially nonsmokers.
In a new study comparing smoking rates and regulations between the US and Turkey, Mansoo Yu, associate professor of social work at the University of Missouri, found the rate of current smoking is higher in Turkey at 27 percent compared to the US at 18 percent.
Though most 'low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' (LMW PAHs) have not been shown to cause cancer alone, the study shows that in common combinations, these chemicals can help to spark the disease.
Head and neck tumors that contain cells undergoing a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition -- which transforms them from neatly organized blocks into irregular structures that extrude into the surrounding environment -- are more likely to invade and spread to other parts of the body, according to a new study led by researchers from Mass. Eye and Ear, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.
When USC researchers from the Viterbi School of Engineering set out to study the environmental benefits of different modes of public transit in LA, they found some unexpected results: certain SoCal public transit routes that were entirely underground exposed passengers to greater concentrations of carcinogens in the air.
Researchers at the University of Kentucky studied the correlation between communities with strong smoke-free workplace laws and the number of new lung cancer diagnoses. Those communities have 8% fewer new cases than communities with weak or no workplace laws.
Enterococcus faecalis 2001 is a probiotic lactic acid bacterium and has been used as a biological response modifier (BRM). From physiological limitation of bacterial preservation in storage and safety, the live E. faecalis 2001 has been heat-treated and the BRM components containing high level of β-glucan, named EF-2001, were prepared.
Unequal exposure to environmental pollutants acting as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is an under-recognized risk factor that may play a key role in driving the higher rates of diabetes among minority and low-income populations, according to a new article in the journal Diabetes Care.