Researchers at Portland State University have developed methods for measuring levels of free-base nicotine in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids and vapor, the levels of which are associated with harshness upon inhalation of e-cigarette vapors and tobacco smoke.
Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington have found a correlation between a strong immune response in diseased corals and a lower expression of genes associated with growth and reproduction.
Origami -- the Japanese art of folding paper into shapes and figures -- dates back to the sixth century. At UMass Lowell, it is inspiring researchers as they develop a 21st century solution to the shortage of tissue and organ donors.
Why it's important to study the deep similarities, and the critical differences, between humans and the apes to seek an anthropological and evolutionary explanation.
A team of researchers in Japan developed a synthetic molecular code to script gene activation. The process, described in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, could help lead to future gene-based therapies for a wide array of diseases.
A study published by Brazilian researchers describes one of Xanthomonas citri's secretion systems and a signaling pathway that enhances its resistance against amoebae. Investigations might contribute for future forms of intervening and putting a stop on the development of X. citri, known for its persistency.
Chemist Vincent Rotello at UMass Amherst, with others at University College London, have developed a 'quick and robust' blood test that can detect liver damage before symptoms appear, offering what they hope is a significant advance in early detection of liver disease. Details appear in Advanced Materials. Their new method can detect liver fibrosis, the first stage of liver scarring that can lead to fatal disease if left unchecked, from a blood sample in 30-45 minutes.
Ecologists have no doubt that climate change will affect the earth's animals and plants. But how exactly? This is often hard to predict. There are already indications that some species are shifting their distribution range. But it is much less clear how individual animals and populations are responding to the changes. Scientists at the UFZ have been studying nocturnal desert geckos to see how they are adapting to climatic changes.
Researchers at Western University were interested in the origin of a gene that encodes for protein, HERC5, shown to potently inhibit HIV. In a new study published in the Journal of Virology, Stephen Barr, Ph.D., assistant professor at Western's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, shows that the gene first emerged in fish over 400 million years ago and has been involved in an evolutionary arms race with viruses ever since.
Boldness correlates with the mating success, but not body size or sex, of yellow-spotted monitor lizards roaming the remote Oombulgurri floodplains of tropical Western Australia, ecologists report in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecosphere. Bold individuals expose themselves to much higher risk of being eaten by predators during the dangerous wet season. The researchers demonstrated quantifiable behavioral syndromes in the large lizards, with an intriguing relationship to the lizards' seasonal hunting strategies.