Volatiles -- such as water, carbon dioxide and the noble gases -- come out of the earth's interior through volcanism and may be injected into the mantle from the atmosphere, a pair of processes called mantle degassing and regassing. The exchange controls the habitability of the planet. This transport could not have begun much before 2.5 billion years ago, according to new research that also establishes a range of dates during which the Earth shifted to a net regassing regime.
A study led by researchers at Indiana University has found that human changes to rivers and streams in the United States and Canada do not isolate these natural resources from the effects of climate change.
Since the 1820s scientists have believed that hydraulic jumps occur partly as a result of the gravitational pull. But a paper published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics has disproved this longstanding theory.
Rice University engineers are developing ionic water-treatment technology that saves money and energy by selectively removing only hazardous contaminants and ignoring those that are harmless. The platform technology could be used to treat drinking water and wastewater from industrial applications like oil and gas wells.
Flooding caused by rain falling on snowpack could more than double by the end of this century in some areas of the western US and Canada due to climate change.
Scientists at the Joint Research Centre, the European Commission's science and knowledge service, have carried out a dam break analysis to assist with emergency response efforts following catastrophic flooding in the Mekong Delta.
A study from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute of the University of Barcelona (IRBio-UB) analysed how water macroinvertebrate species, such as beetles, mosquitos and dragonflies, evolved and diversified since their beginnings. With the analysis of the ecological features of about 6,600 European species, researchers rebuilt the functional space they occupy.
The future of Arctic mosquitoes (Aedes nigripes) in western Greenland depends on aquatic habitat and access to blood meals, according to a Dartmouth study. The study found that female mosquitoes carrying eggs were most abundant near ponds, especially in areas frequented by animals such as caribou, birds and the Arctic hare. Published in Ecosphere, the findings provide new insight into mosquito population dynamics. The rapid rate of environmental changes in the Arctic are impacting aquatic habitats and wildlife that mosquitoes depend on for blood meals.
Stanford researchers map out groundwater at stake in the wake of a court decision that bolsters Native American rights to the precious resource across an increasingly arid West.
Scientists from the Higher School of Economics and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences have investigated how vortex flows penetrate the interior of a liquid. The authors of the article have shown that specific (thin liquid and insoluble) films on the surface of water enhance eddy currents. These currents are produced by the interacting surface waves directed at an angle to each other. The results of the study have been published in Physical Review Fluids.