A new study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute finds improvements in five-year survival rates for all cancers in young adults. For some cancers, however, there has been little improvement since the 1970s.
The Transatlantic Slave Trade transported more than 9 million Africans to the Americas between the early 16th to mid-19th centuries. To help reconstruct the past complex geographical and geopolitical history of the Slave Trade, an international research team has performed a genome-wide analysis using 6,267 individuals from 22 populations to infer how different African groups contributed to today's North- and South-American and Caribbean populations.
Most people know that good oral hygiene - brushing, flossing, and regular dental visits - is linked to good health. Colorado State University microbiome researchers offer fresh evidence to support that conventional wisdom, by taking a close look at invisible communities of microbes that live in every mouth. Their study found a correlation between people who did not visit the dentist regularly and increased presence of a pathogen that causes periodontal disease.
Whether it's coronavirus or misinformation, scientists can use mathematical models to predict how something will spread across populations. But what happens if a pathogen mutates, or information becomes modified, changing the speed at which it spreads? In a new study appearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team of Carnegie Mellon University researchers show for the first time how important these considerations are.
Female sea turtles mate multiply to ensure fertilization. A study of nesting loggerhead female sea turtles in southwest Florida used genotyping to uncover how many fathers were represented in their nests. Surprisingly, scientists found that 75 percent of the female sea turtles had mated singly. No male was represented in more than one female's clutches. Findings provide insights into the relative numbers of males present in the breeding population, which are hard to get because males never come ashore.
University of Pennsylvania biologists have challenged old notions that communities with mutualistic interactions--where the presence of one species benefits another--are unstable. Their model, instead, shows that such interactions can make communities even more stable in some scenarios.
Firefighters have higher rates of some cancers than the general population, which might not be surprising given the many potential carcinogens they encounter while battling blazes. However, previous studies of chemical exposures in this occupation have focused almost exclusively on men. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have compared poly- and perfluorinated substances (PFAS) in the serum of female firefighters and female office workers, finding higher levels of three compounds in the firefighters.
A new analysis of 92 studies from 27 countries conducted by ecologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst suggests that many recent multi-species studies of wildlife communities often incorrectly use the analytical tools and methods available. Technology such as trail cameras and drones have 'revolutionized wildlife monitoring studies' in recent years, says organismic and evolutionary biology doctoral student Kadambari Devarajan, who led the study, 'but if not properly used in well-designed research, they will compromise the reliability of the results obtained.'
The decision of each individual bear to stay on the ice or to move to land appears to be linked to the energetic cost or benefit of either option, and the potential of having to swim to reach land.
With habitat loss threatening the extinction of an ever-growing number of species around the world, many wildlife advocates and conservation professionals rely on the proverbial 'canary in the coal mine'--monitoring and protecting a single representative species--to maintain healthy wildlife biodiversity. But new research from UBC's Okanagan campus suggests that habitats are better served if conservation efforts focus on a collection of species rather than a single 'canary.'