The male Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, living on Japan's main island has big horns, which are used as weapons when it fights other males for females. As such, researchers are accordingly looking for the mechanism that creates these horns. To this end, a research team at the National Institute for Basic Biology in Japan has identified sex-determining genes for this beetle, and has succeeded in identifying the timing of sex differences that appear in horn primordia.
Scientists at UMass Medical School have developed a strategy for editing and repairing a particular type of genetic mutation associated with microduplications using CRISPR/Cas9 and a seldom-used DNA repair pathway. Described in Nature, this approach to programmable gene editing overcomes prior inefficiencies in gene correction.
University of Maryland researchers analyzed an evolutionary tree reconstructed from the DNA of a majority of known bat species and found four bat lineages that exhibit extreme longevity. They also identified, for the first time, two life history features that predict extended life spans in bats.
An international team of life scientists has identified a key gene in the transmission of African sleeping sickness -- a severe disease transmitted by the bite of an infected, blood-sucking tsetse fly, which is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is fatal if untreated. Tens of millions of people in 36 countries are at risk. There is no vaccine, and conventional drug treatments are not very effective and have severe side effects.
In one of the largest studies of its kind, researchers used CRISPR technology to disrupt every gene in 300 cancer models from 30 cancer types and discover thousands of key genes essential for cancer's survival. Scientists developed a system to rank 600 drug targets that show the most promise for drug development. The results accelerate the development of targeted cancer treatments and bring researchers closer to producing a detailed rulebook of precision cancer treatments.
A genetic study of an outbreak of Enterococcus faecalis -- a leading cause of drug-resistant bacterial infections -- in a hospital has revealed how the organism became resistant to new antibiotics and adapted to infect the human bloodstream.
Individual differences in cognitive abilities in children and adolescents are partly reflected in variations in their DNA sequence, according to a study published in Molecular Psychiatry.
The challenges of collecting DNA samples directly from endangered species makes understanding and protecting them harder. A new approach promises cheap, rapid analysis of genetic clues in degraded and left-behind material, such as hair and commercial food products.
Scientists developed a new version of a gene drive that allows the spread of specific, favorable genetic variants, also known as 'alleles,' throughout a population. The new 'allelic drive' is equipped with a guide RNA that directs CRISPR to cut undesired variants of a gene and replace it with a preferred version. Using a word processing analogy, CRISPR-based gene drives allow scientists to edit sentences of genetic information, while the new allelic drive offers letter-by-letter editing.
Researchers from University of Southern Denmark, Wellcome Sanger Institute and BGI, today published a study in the journal Genome Biology comparing the library preparation and sequencing platforms for single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq).