Researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the University of Colorado, Boulder, have found that imagining a sound can be just as effective in breaking an association between that sound and a negative experience as hearing the sound in real life. The findings, publishing Nov. 21 in the journal Neuron, help to explain why imagination, already widely used as a therapy tool, can help with anxiety disorders.
Making good decisions typically involves gathering information over at least several seconds, much longer than the time that individual brain cells take to process their inputs. However, this disparity does not reduce our ability to make accurate choices, finds a new study.
One type of anticipatory timing relies on memories from past experiences. The other on rhythm. Both are critical to our ability to navigate and enjoy the world, and UC Berkeley scientists have found they are handled in two different parts of the brain.
A Columbia University study finds that overnight the brain automatically preserves memories for important events and filters out the rest, revealing new insights into the processes that guide decision making and behavior.
Cognitive difficulties in patients with diabetes, caused by repeated episodes of low blood sugar, could be reduced with antioxidants, according to a new study presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Glasgow. The study findings suggest that stimulating antioxidant defences in mice reduces cognitive impairments caused by low blood sugar, which could help to improve the quality of life for diabetic patients.
To turn back the clock on Alzheimer's disease, many researchers are seeking ways to effectively diagnose the neurodegenerative disorder earlier. One potential way to do this is by tracking a person's brainwave activity, which slows down in certain brain regions that are likely to be affected by the disease next, according to recent findings by Baycrest researchers.
An MIT study has found that a region of the thalamus is key to the process of switching between the rules required for different contexts, an ability known as cognitive flexibility.
Older adults with Down syndrome are at increased risk for developing dementia. This study examined the effect of dementia on death rates in adults with Down syndrome in the United Kingdom. The study included 211 adults, of whom 66 had dementia with an average age at diagnosis of 52. Over the 5 ½-year study period, 27 adults died, 70 percent of whom had dementia, and their average age at death was 57.
About 1 percent of patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability have a mutation in a gene called SETD5. Scientists have now discovered what happens on a molecular level when the gene is mutated in mice, and how this changes the mice's behavior. The results suggest that the brains of mice with a SETD5 mutation may be less flexible
New research from King's College London has found that MDMA, the main ingredient in ecstasy, causes people to cooperate better -- but only with trustworthy people. In the first study to look in detail at how MDMA impacts cooperative behavior the researchers also identified changes to activity in brain regions linked to social processing.