Osaka University researchers developed monoclonal antibodies against CKAP4 -- a plasma membrane protein -- and found that it was released from pancreatic cancer cells. The antibodies not only detected CKAP4 expression as a biomarker from patient sera, but also prevented pancreatic tumor cell proliferation and suppressed tumor formation and metastasis in mice, extending their survival time. These findings are clinically important for the future development of molecular targeted therapy and companion diagnostics for pancreatic cancer.
Scientists have successfully constructed a three-dimensional human epidermis based on predictions made by their mathematical model of epidermal homeostasis, providing a new tool for basic research and drug development.
One of the big challenges in neurobiology is cell classification, a problem compounded by the fact that the same cell type can look different depending on the method of analysis used to classify it -- whether by cell shape, gene expression profile, electrophysiological firing pattern, or selective vulnerability to certain diseases.
Here's a science enigma: Try to explain where the neat, even DNA/RNA helix came from. Ha! Easy one! It probably spun around itself long before first life evolved like it did in a lab. In fact, the twist could have helped select the components of RNA, not the other way around.
Monash researchers have unlocked a key process in all human cells that contributes to diseases like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as well as aging. The discovery reveals how cells efficiently get rid of cellular junk, which when it accumulates, can trigger death and the health problems associated with getting older.
Researchers facing a future with a larger population and more uncertain climate are looking for ways to improve crop yields, and they're looking to photosynthetic bacteria for engineering solutions. In the Journal of Biological Chemistry, a Canadian research team reports on how cyanobacteria finesse one of the most wasteful steps in photosynthesis. The study investigated the assembly of carboxysomes in which the bacteria concentrate carbon dioxide, boosting the efficiency of a critical enzyme called RubisCO.
Kyoto University researchers have designed a temperature-controllable copper-based material for sieving or storing different kinds of gases. The rationale used to design the material, described in the journal Science, could act as a blueprint for developing nanoporous materials with a wide variety of energy, medical and environmental applications.
In a study published today in Genome Research, researchers developed PopPUNK (Population Partitioning Using Nucleotide K-mers), a computational tool for analyzing tens of thousands of bacterial genomes in a single run, up to 200-fold faster than previous methods. Researchers envision PopPUNK will expedite the identification of bacterial strains as the scale of bacterial genomes being sequenced increases and, importantly, allow public health agencies to quickly identify outbreak strains that pose a public health risk.
Plants don't need noses to smell. The ability is in their genes. Researchers at the University of Tokyo have discovered the first steps of how information from odor molecules changes gene expression in plants. Manipulating plants' odor detection systems may lead to new ways of influencing plant behavior.
Scientists at USC Michelson Center and Japan's Nagoya University find and test a promising drug that stops cancer by interfering with the cancer cells' metabolism and other circadian-related functions.