A team of sciences from RUDN Institute of Medicine found out how reactive oxygen species affect the resistance of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy on the example of cisplatin -- an antitumor drug used to treat this type of malignant growth. Practical application of the research results would help improve medical treatment schemes for cancer patients. The article of the scientists was published in the materials of FEBS Congress (FEBS Open Bio).
Bacteria are very sneaky in their efforts to develop resistance to antibiotics. Some strains of bacteria package up the genetic instructions for how they defend themselves and cause disease, and pass this information on to neighbouring, naïve, bacteria -- essentially gifting their colleagues with the defences they need to survive against our medical armoury of antibiotics. Scientists have now answered a key question about how a dangerous bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, shares its genetic information.
Measuring concentrations of medically relevant metabolites in the blood may have just gotten easier -- requiring mere minutes and just microliters of blood -- thanks to an approach involving a bioengineered protein that lights up, and a digital camera.
Researchers have cleared one hurdle toward environmental cleanup of certain contaminants with a newly designed synthetic enzyme that reduces the compound sulfite to sulfide -- a notoriously complex multistep chemical reaction that has eluded chemists for years.
A team of researchers from Oslo University Hospital performed experiments on blood-deprived cells that were subsequently exposed to blood serum. Remarkably, all the cells started to move and grow in the same direction as soon as the blood serum was added. Researchers from Eindhoven University of Technology developed a matching simulation model, revealing new insights into the mechanisms of wound healing. The results were published in the journal Nature Communications this week.
Evolution by natural selection is immensely powerful -- both in nature and within laboratories. Researchers have identified 'Structural Capacitance Elements' within proteins, which retain the potential to evolve into micro-structures following the introduction of a mutation. These mutated proteins are associated with many different types of human diseases, such as cancer. Understanding if and how a mutation may change the protein shape will be pivotal in targeting that protein for use in therapeutics.
To date, most electricity-generating bacteria have come from weird environments, but UC Berkeley researchers have found more than 100 in the human microbiome, both pathogenic and probiotic. They were unsuspected because they employ a different and simpler extracellular electron transfer system, which may prove useful in creating bacterial batteries. Their electrogenic ability may be important in infectivity, or in how they ferment cheese and yogurt.
For the first time, scientists have created, entirely from scratch, a protein capable of binding to a small target molecule. They designed a cylindrical protein called a beta barrel, which has a cavity to bind the target. The designed protein was able to bind and activate a compound similar to that housed inside green fluorescent protein.
University of Houston researchers have developed a new medicine that can inhibit two of the major pathways of pancreatic cancer. The new synthetic compound is based on a type of sea sponge.
Scientists have long feared that as Earth warms, tropical peatlands -- which store up to 10 percent of the planet's soil carbon -- could dry out, decay and release vast pools of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, accelerating climate change. A new study led by Duke and Florida State researchers, however, finds theses swamps and marshes have a natural biochemical defense mechanism that helps them resist decay and could reduce or slow their emissions.