Families of critically ill hospital patients report higher satisfaction with clinician communication and a better perception of patient-centered care when the care team uses a low-cost strategy involving intensive emotional support and frequent meetings.
A new longitudinal study examined the likelihood of homeless youth of different races being harassed and arrested by police. The study found that nonwhite homeless youth are more likely than white homeless youth to report police harassment and arrest, but that elements of living on the street -- including increased visibility and prior experiences with harassment -- offset racial disparities.
Eastern hemlock forests have been declining due to a non-native insect pest. A new study from The Condor: Ornithological Applications presents some of the best data showing how the decline of a single tree species leads to the disappearance of birds specialized to them. The data also indicate birds associated with non-hemlock habitat features are spreading into former hemlock forests. A single insect species has led to a less diverse bird community across this landscape.
If resources are limited and tough to find, reproductive efforts may fail. In these situations, it may be in an animal's best interests to not defend a territory or to breed at all, but rather focus its efforts on surviving to the next breeding season. A new study from The Auk: Ornithological Advances presents some of the best evidence on how changes in environmental conditions, specifically droughts, impact the social and reproductive behavior of birds.
A new study suggests that as little as two weeks of compassion meditation training -- intentionally cultivating positive wishes to understand and relieve the suffering of others -- may reduce the distress a person feels when witnessing another's suffering. The findings may have implications for professions in which people routinely work with others who are suffering, like doctors, law enforcement officers and first responders.
In one of the first studies to try to map a gun market using network science, researchers used the novel scientific approach to understand how close offenders are to guns in the city of Chicago. Recreating Chicago's co-offending network of approximately 188,000 people, the researchers used data on firearms recovered by the Chicago Police Department to locate who in the network possessed those guns.
Discussions concerning the ethical issues related to stem cells have been ongoing for many years, but a special section in the latest issue of Perspectives in Biology and Medicine takes a deep look at some of the newest and most complex issues -- including the direct global sales of services and untested and unproven products marketed as stem cells.
The habit of taxing Multinational Enterprises (MNEs)' profits is the legacy of a time when "GM had to make cars in Detroit and Hollywood had to make movies in L.A.", but is now inefficient and detrimental to global welfare, a new study by Nicolai Foss, Rodolfo Debenedetti Chair of Entrepreneurship at Bocconi University, and colleagues asserts. The solution would be zeroing corporate tax and replacing it with a hike in taxes on dividends and sales.
At the International Conference on Robotics and Automation, researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) will present a new lane-change algorithm that splits the difference. It allows for more aggressive lane changes than the simple models do but relies only on immediate information about other vehicles' directions and velocities to make decisions.
A new study has uncovered when and why the native vegetation that today dominates much of Australia first expanded across the continent. The research should help researchers better predict the likely impact of climate change and rising carbon dioxide levels on such plants here and elsewhere.