Scientists working to bioengineer the entire human gastrointestinal system in a laboratory now report using pluripotent stem cells to grow human esophageal organoids. The newly published research in the journal Cell Stem Cell is the first time scientists have been able to grow human esophageal tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which can form any tissue type in the body.
The new system did not minimize pre-transplant dialysis exposure for patients who were not waitlisted preemptively.
Children are at a considerable disadvantage when competing with adults for livers from deceased organ donors in the US allocation system for liver transplants.
University of Colorado Boulder researchers have discovered a key mechanism by which skin begins to develop in embryos.
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered using mice and human clinical specimens that caspase-2, a protein-cleaving enzyme, is a critical driver of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a chronic and aggressive liver condition. By identifying caspase-2's critical role, they believe an inhibitor of this enzyme could provide an effective way to stop the pathogenic progression that leads to NASH -- and possibly even reverse early symptoms.
The DNA-based test paves the way for precision medicine by giving leukemia patients personal disease prognosis based on mutation frequency in their cancer cells.
A new study in the INFORMS journal Management Science shows how to improve the success rate of an innovative kidney matching process called kidney exchange. The enhancement centers on a new concept called 'failure-aware' matching that takes pre-transplant compatibility failures into account probabilistically. Depending somewhat on the exact setting, the method can roughly double the number of transplants.
Titanium-based materials are widely used in medical implant technology, and coating the surface of titanium materials with biologically active molecules has recently shown promise to improve how cells adhere to implants. The mechanisms behind how peptides stick to titanium, however, are not fully understood. Researchers have now found how calcium ions present at the interface between titanium oxide and tissues affect how well peptides bind to the metal. The team reports their findings in Biointerphases.
In a paper published in Xenotransplantation, Mark Prichard, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have described the development and testing of 30 quantitative assays for pig infectious agents. These assays had sensitivities similar to clinical lab assays for viral loads in human patients. After validation, the UAB team also used the assays on nine sows and 22 piglets delivered from the sows through caesarian section.
Stem cells transformed into 3D human liver tissue show promising support of liver function when implanted into mice with a liver disease. The scientists say that in addition to being early-stage progress towards developing human liver tissue implants, it could also reduce the need for animals in research by providing a better platform to study human liver disease and test drugs in the lab.